treatment or interventions that have been tried. Available in multiple languages, there is no specified age range for administration.
AUTISM DIAGNOSTIC OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (ADOS)
The ADOS is a semi-structured assessment used to identify and diagnose children and adults with autism or PDD. There are 4 modules to the ADOS, each of which lasts about 35-40 minutes. The first 2 modules are used for children who either do not use phrase speech, or who use phrase speech but are not fluent in it. Module 3 is used with fluent children and Module 4 with fluent adolescents and adults. Each module has activities in it that allow the examiner to observe and record behaviors that are specific to autism and related disorders. The recorded observations are coded and scored, and are used by the professional to formulate a diagnosis. Standardized score ranges include cutoff points for autism, atypical autism, and PDD, and are unaffected by language. This assessment does not address non-verbal adolescents and adults, and is not used with this group. It can be used with all ages, provided that the individual being assessed is at least somewhat verbal. Available from Western Psychological Services.
SOCIAL RESPONSIVENESS SCALE (SRS)
This assessment is designed to provide a measurement of the severity of autism spectrum disorders as they occur in natural social settings. It is also designed to distinguish autistic spectrum disorders from other childhood psychiatric conditions by identifying the presence and extent of autistic social impairment. The assessment provides a standardized score for 5 treatment subscales, in addition to providing a total score that reflects the severity of social deficits in the assessed individual. The areas assessed are: receptive, cognitive, expressive and motivational aspects of social behavior, as well as Autistic preoccupations. These subscales are not used for screening diagnosis, but are used and are very helpful in designing and evaluating treatment programs. Typical age range for this assessment is 4 to 18 years, and the assessment is administered by a parent or teacher. The SRS generally requires about 15 to 20 minutes. Total SRS scores are used to identify Autism and several other major disorders, including PDD-NOS, Asperger’s Syndrome, Pervasive Personality Disorder of Childhood, and some of the Schizoid disorders.
SOCIAL COMMUNICATION QUESTIONNAIRE (SCQ)
This is a screening tool that is used to identify children with autism or autistic spectrum disorders in a quick, efficient, cost effective manner. It consists of 40 yes/no questions and is available in 2 forms. The Lifetime form focuses on the child’s entire developmental history, and provides a total score that can be interpreted according to a standardized scale. The scale has cutoff points for various conditions, including Autism and Asperger’s. The Lifetime form can be used to identify those individuals who need to be referred for a more complete examination. The Current form focuses on the child’s behavior over the most recent 3 month period. Scores from this form can be used in treatment planning and interventions, and are also useful for tracking specific changes over time. Contents of the SCQ parallel that of the ADI-R and are not affected by language, age, gender, or performance IQ. Typical age for administration is 4 years, and the questionnaire can be administered to anyone with a mental age of 2 years or greater.