2.6 In Situ FTIR to Monitor Polymerizations
Using in situ FTIR, Long, et al., investigated the polymerizations of 1,3- cyclohexadiene based star polymers,223 maleic anhydride and norbornane based alternating copolymers,224 and isocyanate prepolymers.225 A probe, connected to the ASI-FTIR ReactIR™, was inserted into the polymerization flask at the onset of the experiment. Data points were taken, where the (equally spaced) time intervals could be varied between data points for different experiments. Using in situ FTIR, faster reactions, such as the 1,3-cyclohexadiene polymerization, and slower reactions such as the maleic anhydride and norbornane copolymerization, were readily monitored in real time.226,227
2.7 Carbazole Based Methacrylates and Acrylates
Some researchers have synthesized methacrylates and acrylates with pendant carbazole functionalities. Strohriegl has worked extensively with the amidation of polymethacrylates and polyacrylates, including the incorporation of pendant carbazole groups.228,229,230,231 He used two different methods to synthesize polymethacrylates (and polyacrylates) with pendant carbazole groups (Scheme 2.2).232
In the first method, alkenylcarbazoles were prepared from the corresponding bromoalkenes. Hydroboration with 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (9-BBN) produced the corresponding hydroxyalkylcarbazoles. Esterification with methacryloyl chloride
224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231
Williamson, D.; Brazhnik, K.; Elman, J.; Pasquale, A.J.; Long, T., Polym. Prepr., 2000, 41(2), 1544. Pasquale, A.J.; Karro, R.; Allen, R.; Long, T., Polym. Prepr. 2000, 41(2), 1931. Pasquale, A.J.; Allen, R.; Long, T., Proc. Annu. Meet. Adhes. Soc., 2000, 23rd, 232. Williamson, D.; Brazhnik, K.; Elman, J.; Pasquale, A.J.; Long, T., Op. Cit. Pasquale, A.J.; Karro, R.; Allen, R.; Long, T., Op. Cit. Strohriegl, P. Makrol. Chem., 1993, 194, 393. Strohriegl, P. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1990, 183, 261. Strohriegl, P. Makrol. Mol. Chem., Rapid Commun., 1986, 183, 261. Reinhold, R.; Strohriegl, P.; Lauke, H.; Nick, B.; Haarer, D., (BASF) US Patent, 1993, 5,176,962. Strohriegl, P., Makrol. Chem., ibid.