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Test Bank for Marine Biology: Function, Biodiversity, Ecology 2E - page 33 / 44

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c. A major factor in community structure in areas where migratory shorebirds stop

d. Restricted in importance on rocky shores to starfish only

Early dominants in intertidal seaweed succession

a. Inevitably give way to species later in the successional sequence

b. Are poor colonizers

c. Are resistant to grazing

d. Are usually not as well defended chemically as species later in succession

Estuaries

a. Are ephemeral and therefore of no biological importance

b. Are extremely important as nurseries for many species of fish

c. Have salinities too low to support much marine life

d. Have relatively low primary production, so species must feed outside the estuary

In an estuary

a. Benthos penetrate not as far upstream as zooplankton

b. Benthos live with more salinity variation than zooplankton

c. Benthos penetrate just as far upstream as zooplankton

d. Benthos penetrate farther upstream than do zooplankton

Spartina salt marsh plants spread mainly by

a. Seed set as they are flowering plants

b. Vegetative growth via the rhizomal system

c. Fragmentation and water-borne transport of adult plants

d. Subterranean spores

Lower intertidal salt marsh plants

a. Can grow well in the high intertidal zone

b. Are severely limited in growth in the high intertidal zone

c. Are no more salt-tolerant than high intertidal plants

d. Can grow in very deep water

Detritus derived from Spartina

a. Is very digestible and is consumed by many invertebrate species

b. Cannot be broken down by bacteria

c. Is never produced because all Spartina leaves are consumed by herbivores

d. None of the above

Mangroves

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