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Test Bank for Marine Biology: Function, Biodiversity, Ecology 2E - page 36 / 44

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Coral atolls

a. Are found strictly in the Pacific

b. Are formed by rising of the earth's crust

c. Are formed by sinking of the earth's crust

d. Grow in higher latitudes than coastal reefs

Zooxanthellae benefit their coral hosts

a. Principally by removing nitrogenous wastes

b. Mainly by supplying oxygen in an oxygen-poor environment

c. By protecting them from uv light

d. By transferring carbohydrates to their hosts, which is used for food

Mass spawning of many species on coral reefs is beneficial because

a. It guarantees cross-fertilization among species

b. It increases the probability of fertilization for each species separately

c. It allows suspension feeders to feed on gametes from the water column

d. It guarantees the distant transport of gametes from the parents

Many sessile species often coexist on coral reefs because

a. Space is never limiting

b. Predation always reduces population sizes

c. Interspecific mechanisms of competition are complex and often non-hierarchical

d. They could never require the same space for attachment

Corals growing slowly on reefs

a. Are always overgrown by faster growing corals, so they survive only by high larval recruitment

b. May maintain themselves by aggressive responses towards neighbors

c. Live only on the undersides of other corals

d. Tend to grow tall so as to shade out their neighbors

In regions with coral reefs

a. Diseases are spread only locally within a reef

b. Only corals have been found to be affected by disease

c. Disease has been found to play an insignificant role in coral reef ecology

d. Diseases can be spread by currents over large areas

Chapter 16

Suspension feeders do badly in mud because

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