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Randa, Bio100

Chapter 12 and 13 / Genetics

  • I.

    Introduction to Genetics--study of inheritance

    • A.

      Traits are inherited

      • 1.

        passed form one generation to another

      • 2.

        information is carried along on genes--regions of DNA

  • B.

    Describing an organism’s genetic makeup

    • 1.

      phenotype= visible trait; expression of the genes

    • 2.

      genotype = actual codes or genes on DNA

    • C.

      Why does variation exist? How is it determined?

  • II.

    Mendelian Genetics Gregor Mendel 1866

    • A.

      Early genetic observations

      • 1.

        forms of traits appear in certain offspring of a specific cross

      • 2.

        certain forms will be more highly represented than others (dominate)

      • 3.

        some forms of a trait will not show up in one generation, but may reappear unchanged in the

following generation

  • B.

    Genetic experiments with pea plants (Pisum sativum)

    • 1.

      easy to grow, reproduce quickly

    • 2.

      easily recognizable traits

3. have enclosed flowers that can “self-fertilize”

  • C.

    Mendel’s experiments

    • 1.

      started out with pea plants of “pure” strains

    • 2.

      made experimental crosses between different varieties

      • --

        looked at one trait at a time: monohybrid cross

      • --

        obtained hybrids in F1 generation

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