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*The 1985 figure is for the Western Germany only; the 1995 figure is for unified Germany.

Source: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1997.

Note: Data are given in constant 1995 dollars.

It can also be noted that trade between the EU and Latin America surpasses that between NAFTA and Africa.  First, because of the desire of both the EU and Mercosur to develop this relationship, for a variety of strategic and political reasons.  Second, because of the lack of a growing market in NAFTA for African goods.  Third, because of the colonial legacy which gives France and the U.K. an inherent advantage over the U.S. in trade with Africa.  From this we can note that the relative intensity of the trade relationship between NAFTA and the EU is consistent with the historic focus on the security dimensions of the relationship between these northern partners to the exclusion of the other linkages.

Capital flows among Atlantic Rim nations show some interesting patterns.  As would be expected there is little capital movement between Africa and Latin America, significant North to South movement and intense interaction between North America and the EU.  With regard to Latin America, including Mexico, of the stock of direct investment, as of 1989, 48 per cent originated in the U.S. and 28 per cent in the EU.  U.S. sources exceed those of the EU in Mexico alone by 63 to 20 per cent, in Chile by 45 to 17 per cent in Venezuela by 46 to 20 per cent and in Columbia by 71 to 11 per cent.  The gap narrows for Argentina to 42 to 37 per cent, and in Brazil EU sources actually exceed those of the U.S. by 38 to 28 per cent.xiv

In an interesting statistical mapping of the world trade patterns, Jessie Poon confirms that the Western Hemisphere (as well as Israel and Egypt) is in the orbit of the United States, and that Europe and all but the north-eastern corner of Africa are dominated by either the United Kingdom or Germany..  He also demonstrates the degree to which this structure has developed since 1965.xv   What is not included in these two regions of this mapping are the Russia and Central Europe region, and the Japanese “region” which includes all of South-east and Southern Asia as well as the Middle east and parts of eastern Africa.  This gives further confirmation of the integrity of the Atlantic Rim as a bifurcated region and its potential for developing a set of closer connections.

4b.Cultural and intellectual contact - The cultural linkages among the Atlantic Rim regions are as complex as are any of the other linkages.  They are certainly more important than any other since if antagonism reigns here it will affect all other relationships.  Given the position of Europe in the trans-Atlantic space since the 15th century, the emergence of the United States as a power in the 19th century, the prominence of the slave trade for much of the period, and the relatively subordinate position of African and Latin American nations, Canada and Mexico throughout most of their histories, each of the individual bilateral links is characterized by a mixture of commonality and mistrust.  It is obviously

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