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period and is perceived as old-fashioned at best and immoral neo-colonialism at worst.”xxxi  Neither the Commonwealth nor the Francophonie has a significant military vocation and, as was noted above, each is limited to such topics as culture, education and development assistance.

Britain has sharply cut back its military presence in Africa and of the other EU members only France has bi-lateral military relationships with several African countries.  These were established with the specific intention of pursuing France’s national interest.  Military advisors have been stationed in over twenty countries.  France contributes financially to the salaries of some defense staff, and offers financial aid for military purchases.  Currently there are seven French military bases in African countries, eight mutual defense agreements, and twenty-six agreements for military cooperation.xxxii   The EU itself has not developed a security relationship with either Africa or Latin America.

In the Americas, economic development, engagement in the global economy through initiatives aimed at liberalizing trade and investment flows and an area-wide movement toward more democratic political processes have greatly reduced the likelihood of conflict with the US.  For the first time since the end of the Second World War, there is no prospect of US military action in Central or South America on the horizon.

Finally, it should be noted that the defense relationships between the national of Africa and those of Latin America are negligible.

4e.Tourism – Data for the flows of tourists among the four Atlantic Rim regions is presented in Figure III.  The magnitude of each of the flows is the result of a variety of factors, such as: cultural ties, per capita income and promotional activities.  These suggest why the contact between Africa and Latin America is relatively so insignificant and that of Europe and North America dominates the figures, 51 per cent of the total for the six linkages.  The travel between Europe and Africa is concentrated in a small number of countries: France, Spain and Italy and Morocco, Tunisia and South Africa.  In the Americas, travel between the United States, and both Mexico and Puerto Rico is especially significant.  

The large flows of Latin Americans to both North America and Europe are indicative of what might be expected of Africa in the future if per capita incomes there can be increased.  Efforts at economic development in Africa have been stymied for decades by political and economic institutions, structures and policies that were not conducive to increases in production, incomes and exports of goods other than raw materials.  The development of Atlantic Rim linkages is a consequence of the forces of globalization that have done so much to develop democratic political regimes and greater reliance on market forces in Latin America during the past decade.  It can only be hoped that this sort of impact is felt in Africa as well, in which case one must anticipate that tourist flows both to and from Africa will increase.

Figure III

Atlantic Rim Tourist Flows, 1996









Latin America



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