investors and individuals in other sectors of society in spite of policy to the contrary being imposed by national governmentsiv is one to which we shall return when discussing the Atlantic Rim concept.
2b. - While the previous period in Atlantic Rim history was characterized by imperialism, colonies, perceived economic and national status gains, and domination and dependency, the present century was dominated by two great wars. These wars had powerful impacts on the military and economic power of the major participants and set the agenda for the major organizational and institutional structures that were created. The exigencies of strategic concerns forced other considerations to the background.
Walter Lippmann's "Atlantic Community" was born with the First World War and was inclusive only of the United States, Canada, France and the United Kingdom and, of course, exclusive of Germany which through its submarine warfare was seen to be threatening the "Atlantic highway."v The heart of the Atlantic Community was an Anglo-American alliance, which he saw as inevitable, and only after the Cold War had become a threat did he extend participation to Germany.vi
During the inter-war years, Britain and Germany made major efforts to regain the position in Latin America that had been lost during World War I; Roett characterizes this as a period of "intense rivalry among Washington, Berlin and London for markets and investment opportunities." But the U.S. position had become too strong and: "Although Britain and Germany were able to recover some of the ground they had lost, it was clear that they now faced a new and powerful contender in the United States, one able and willing to challenge Europe for dominance in the region." The U.S. had developed a dominant position in the Caribbean that it was never to relinquish.vii In Africa the situation was just the reverse. Until the strategic concerns of the Cold War period, Europe was the dominant external partner and relationships continued to be colonial or imperial in nature, with North America and South America rather on the sidelines.
On the eve of the Second World War U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull pursued an Anglo-American (-Canadian) trade agreement as a counter to American isolationism and believed that such an agreement could be expanded to include other nations.viii William L. Langer concluded that in the five years between the Ethiopian Crisis and the fall of France, in 1940, United States public opinion moved dramatically from its deepest isolationist position to that of considering it "intolerable that any one power should control the man-power and resources of the European continent," even if that meant U.S. military involvement.ix In the post-WWII period, a North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement including the same Anglo-Saxon nations failed to move beyond initial discussions, but the more inclusive North Atlantic Treaty Organization, responding to Cold War period security needs, became the keystone of trans-Atlantic relations. The decade of the 1960's was one of heightened interest in Atlantic relations. U.S. President John F. Kennedy proposed, in 1961, a Grand Design for an Atlantic Partnership. The justification for this continued to be the need to counter "the Soviet menace" to western civilization. The Partnership was to be a joining of two equal partners, each with special ties to its part of the non-communist world. The United States was to bring to the table Canada, Latin America and the Pacific, especially Japan, while Western Europe would bring Africa and the British Commonwealth.x The Declaration of Paris, of