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# 2.2 Relevant literature

Adler et al (2000) did a case study to see how mathematics students and teachers in practice can integrate mathematics within and across the disciplines. Adler at al (2000) found that mathematics teachers and students alike find it challenging to integrate mathematics with other learning areas. Taking the latter in consideration, I want to explore the finding of Adler and others (2000) on the premise that time frames have increased and to look at whether that status quo of their findings still remains. Possible changes could have evolved with time passing and the situation to integrate with more ease might be elicited. Davidson et al (1995) gives a breakdown of different types of integration that can help me understand what it means to integrate.

There are different types of integration and different methods (pedagogy) to implement and apply with the integrated curriculum as explained by Davidson (1995). According to Davidson (1995) there are five types of integrations and these integrations are as follows:

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Discipline specific integration (between concept within a discipline, e.g. Geometry and Algebra

in Mathematics. Using the theory of Pythagoras in a drawing of a right angle triangle to prove that a2 + b2 = c2 (The sum of the two sides; adjacent and opposite sides depending on the position of theta (Ó¨); of the right angle triangle, squared is equal to the hypotenuse side of the triangle squared) which is also a perfect square formula in algebra. Product can also link with Expand when the expanded notation takes the format of 123 = (1x100) + (2x10) + (3x1). These concepts can be relationally understood at grade seven levels, if it is made clear to the learners with integration.

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Content integration (between two disciplines, e.g. Mathematics and EMS as explained earlier

with the concept “product”. Also the expanded notation in mathematics that is relating to the Place value of numbers in an amount with more then one digit ( 1230 = 1000 + 200 + 30 + 0) and expend in EMS referring to the increase of a business or an economic idea that grows with success and productivity. Expand is another concept in both learning areas where the same

# Prevein Marnewicke: Forms and meanings of Integration. A case study towards completion

of a Master of Education degree.

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