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Mathematics use different types of graphs to determine variables; to illustrate information or data and data handling and EMS use different types of graphs to determine variable or fixed costs.

If the understanding of the different types of integration is grasped, then the need to explore how and which one or two or more of the different types of integration is implemented in practice. Not only is it imperative to explore the implementation of the type of integration in practice, but also the effectiveness and the efficiency that is it implemented with.

Policy documentation of the department of Education (1997 and 2003) can also assist to clarify the understanding of integration in context of education in South Africa. According to the EMS policy document integration is a key principle of the RNCS grades R-9 (Schools) and that it requires the use of knowledge and skills from other Learning Areas, or from different parts of the same Learning Area, to carry out tasks and activities (Department of Education, 2002: 58) This statement or argument from the policy document of the department is in line with what Shulman (1986) argues in a paper that speaks to Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK).

Shulman (1986) mentions interesting ideas surrounding the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) that educators need to have in order to teach effectively. Shulman (1986) argues that the professional teacher needs to be familiar with the curriculum and concepts that her students are learning and studying in the other subjects at the same time that they are studying with her. This knowledge, according to Shulman (1986), relates to the teachers ability to relate issues and topics that are simultaneously under discussion during the period of learning and teaching. The latter implies that educators need to understand other domains relevant to his/her own domain of teaching. It also implies that teachers need to effectively relate and explain to her/his students the related understanding and meaning of the content and how it links to, with and across other domains and learning areas as it is argued by Runesson (1999). The argument of Runesson (1999) in Assan (2008) is that; when teachers are studied in practice and they converse content to the learners, they display a point of reference to the content transferred. This capacity to represent freedom of distinction seems to be an implicit dimension of teachers‟ knowledge. This knowledge in practice can be described as “skilled content knowledge” and “pedagogical content knowledge” (Molander in Runesson, 1999) and in line with the notion of Shulman (1986). This Prevein Marnewicke: Forms and meanings of Integration. A case study towards completion

of a Master of Education degree.

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