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2.3 Theoretical Frame work

2.3.1 Concepts of Bernstein

According to Bernstein (1982) formal schooling and education can be realized through a three message system: One the Curriculum: That which counts as valid knowledge (NCS). Two the Pedagogy: That which is seen as valid for transmission (OBE). Thirdly, Evaluation

(Assessment):

That

which

is

valid

for

realization

Bernstein (1982) mentions that time allocations which

of knowledge of the is called periods (time

taught (Learners). units) and whether

it

is

optional

or

compulsory

determine

the

status

of

the

contents

(LA‟s).

The

clear

or

blurred

relationship whether the

between contents and the status of the relationship

degree of boundary strength between content determine is closed or open. Blurred relationship Bernstein (1982)

nominates as open and a well insulated relationship he transmission (Classification and Framing) is seen by Classification as used by Bernstein (1982) refers to the maintenance between contents. Strong classification refers

nominates as closed. The forms of Bernstein (1982) as social facts. degree of boundary insulation and to well and clear insulated boundary

and weak classification message system called

refers to a curriculum

blurred and open relationship. Classification speaks to the not the classification of the content but the relationship

between the contents and the boundary insulation. (1982) bring to the fore is a collection type where

The two types of curriculum the contents stand in a close

that Bernstein relationship to

each with

other each

and the integrated type where the contents stand in an open and inviting relationship other. According to Bernstein (1982) there is underlying concepts to the collection

type to man.

create

a

specific

type

of

educated

person:

The

vocational

man

and

the

non

vocational

Frame speaks to the message system called pedagogy and the way (context) in which the knowledge is transmitted and received. Frame speaks to the range of options available to the teachers and the taught (Learners) in reference to the selection, timing and pacing of the knowledge to be transmitted and received. Strong framing gives no or little options to the teachers and the learners and weak framing refers to a range of options available to the teacher

Prevein Marnewicke: Forms and meanings of Integration. A case study towards completion

of a Master of Education degree.

Page 14

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