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Manion (1994) relate as specifically selected cases on the intention of the researchers as they embark on the search to identify a sample that is satisfactory to specific aims of their research

In purposive sampling, researchers handpick the cases to be included in the sample on the basis of their judgment of their typicality. In this way, they build up a sample that is satisfactory to their specific needs (Cohen and Manion, 1994: 89)

For purposes of getting a clear understanding and piloting at the first school, I did the same study at these two different schools with grade seven EMS and Mathematics teachers. In order for me to gain some perspective to the validity and reliability of my study, I used the first school as a pilot study. The pilot study guided me to test my methodological tools (Concept maps, Interviews and data recording device) and to refine my research design. Piloting guided me to not use video recording due to ethical difficulties that may arise. The pilot also brought to the fore that I need to first explain concept mapping to my respondents, because they only had a idea of concept mapping and needed more clarity about the concept mapping idea. It also assisted me to make my appointments with the respondents for after school time as the noise levels during school hours interfered with the sound quality of the recordings. Some of my interview questions I had to rearticulate in order to get more direct and clear answers from my respondents.

I identified EMS concepts from the EMS Syllabus and policy documents (DoE, 2002) that, in my view, would be connected to some mathematical concepts which the teachers have to understand and grasp in order to do integration between mathematics and EMS in their teaching. These concepts as mentioned before were: Graph, Ratio, Percentage, Salary, Product and Expand. I did the pilot study with the respondents at my school and got data that I could use to get results and interpretations. I did an interview with the Mathematics teacher and the EMS teacher could not attend her interview due to illness. However, I obtained sufficient information to enable me to reflect and attempt to answer my research questions.

The Mathematics teacher had been teaching Mathematics for fourteen years. Given his background, it can be said that the Mathematics teachers had experienced the traditional curriculum in mathematics and had gone through a paradigm shift that was brought about with

Prevein Marnewicke: Forms and meanings of Integration. A case study towards completion

of a Master of Education degree.

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