Technology & Influences
Findings & Motifs
Glass used as gem substitute
Diamonds not cut, “point cut” were polished crystals
Sumptuary Laws in Medieval Europe & England capped luxury in dress and jewelry. Townspeople in France & elsewhere not allowed to wear girdles or coronals made of pearls, gemstones, gold or silver.
The fact that these laws forbade yeomen and artisans from wearing gold and silver indicates how the status of jewelry and sumptuous dress had become widespread beyond just the nobility.
1300 imitation pearls produced with white powdered glass mixed with albumen (egg white) and snail slime
Cabochon & crudely made soft glass ‘pastes’.
Table cut introduced for diamonds: top & bottom points cut off, flat top facet is the ‘table’
Pastes set in gilt as fake gems
Mazarin cut diamonds (34 facets, blocky)
Earrings worn day and night, fake pearl and paste acceptable, fine diamond jewelry kept for evening
Shepard hook earwire, long backs
Beads, pearls strung on ribbon or cord & tied in back
Enamel on “everything”
Ornate pendant bails
Rose cut diamond cut (flat bottoms, faceted tops)
Sancy cut pear shaped rose faceted diamonds
Jaquin of Paris patents a method of making fake pearls, wax-filled glass balls coated with fish scale varnish
Pearls and fake pearls profuse, covered dresses, etc.
Paste jewelry was usual in the 1670s and was worn at court.
Most fake jewelry made in Paris, all kinds of fake gems made, including fake opals.
Hinged loop earwire (back entry) hand made
Diamonds & white stones until 1750. Soft glass ‘paste’, rock crystal, marcasite, and cut steel accepted for ‘diamond’ look (all classes)
Peruzzi cut diamonds, c. 1700. 56 facet cushion cut brilliant
In France Georges Strass patents best, longest-lasting formula for “true” paste, a compound of glass, white lead oxide and potash.
Necklace terminals to secure a ribbon
French wires, triangle-shaped catch for wire
High-lead glass “true” paste gems--not considered ‘fake’--set in precious metals. Foiled backs