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stringency  and lead time. The  regulations shall apply  to the useful

life of the engines or vehicles (as determined by the Administrator).

   "(4)  If  the  Administrator determines  that  any  emissions  not

referred  to in  paragraph (2)  from new  nonroad engines  or vehicles

significantly  contribute to  air  pollution which  may reasonably  be

anticipated to  endanger public  health or welfare,  the Administrator

may promulgate (and from time to time revise) such regulations  as the

Administrator  deems  appropriate containing  standards  applicable to

emissions  from those classes or categories of new nonroad engines and

new  nonroad  vehicles  (other  than locomotives  or  engines  used in

locomotives)  which   in  the   Administrator's  judgment   cause,  or

contribute to, such air  pollution, taking into account costs,  noise,

safety,  and  energy  factors   associated  with  the  application  of

technology which  the Administrator  determines will be  available for

the   engines  and  vehicles  to  which   such  standards  apply.  The

regulations shall apply to the useful  life of the engines or vehicles

(as determined by the Administrator).

   "(5) Within  5 years  after  the enactment  of the  Clean Air  Act

Amendments of  1990, the  Administrator  shall promulgate  regulations

containing standards applicable to  emissions from new locomotives and

new engines  used in  locomotives. Such  standards  shall achieve  the

greatest   degree  of  emission   reduction  achievable   through  the

application of  technology which the Administrator  determines will be

available  for the  locomotives  or engines  to  which such  standards

apply, giving appropriate  consideration to the cost of  applying such

technology within the period of time available to manufacturers and to

noise, energy, and  safety factors associated with  the application of

such technology.

   "(b)  Effective  Date.-Standards  under  this section  shall  take

effect  at the  earliest  possible  date  considering  the  lead  time

necessary to permit  the development and application  of the requisite

technology, giving appropriate consideration to the cost of compliance

within such period and energy and safety.

   "(c)  Safe Controls.-Effective  with  respect  to new  engines  or

vehicles  to which  standards under  this section  apply,  no emission

control device, system,  or element of design shall be  used in such a

new  nonroad engine or new  nonroad vehicle for  purposes of complying

with such standards if such device,  system, or element of design will

cause or contribute to an unreasonable risk to public health, welfare,

or  safety in  its operation  or function.  In determining  whether an

unreasonable  risk  exists, the  Administrator shall  consider factors

including those described in section 202(a)(4)(B).

   "(d)  Enforcement.-The  standards  under  this  section  shall  be

subject to sections 206, 207, 208, and 209, with such modifications of

the  applicable   regulations  implementing  such   sections  as   the

Administrator  deems appropriate, and  shall be  enforced in  the same

manner as  standards prescribed  under section 202.  The Administrator

shall revise or promulgate regulations as may be necessary to de-

termine compliance with, and  enforce, standards in effect  under this


   (b) State Standards.-Section 209 of  the Clean Air Act  (42 U.S.C.

   7543) is amended by adding the following at the end thereof:

   "(e) Nonroad Engines or Vehicles.-

      "(1) Prohibition  on certain  state standards.-No State  or any

   political subdivision  thereof shall adopt  or attempt to  enforce

   any  standard or  other requirement  relating  to  the control  of

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