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measures are  to be implemented,  taking costs,  safety, energy,  lead

time,  and other relevant factors into account. Such regulations shall

require that such urban buses comply with the provisions of subsection

(b)  of  this  section (and  subsection  (c)  of  this subsection,  if

applicable) in  addition to  compliance with the  standards applicable

under  section 202(a)  for heavy-duty  vehicles of  the same  type and

model year.

   "(b) PM Standard.-

      "(1) 50  percent reduction.-The standards under  section 202(a)

   applicable to urban  buses shall  require that, effective  for the

   model year  1994 and thereafter,  emissions of particulate  matter

   (PM)  from  urban  buses  shall  not  exceed  50  percent  of  the

   emissions of  particulate matter (PM)  allowed under the  emission

   standard  applicable under  section 202(a) as  of the  date of the

   enactment of the  Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 for particulate

   matter (PM) in  the case of heavy-duty diesel vehicles and engines

   manufactured in the model year 1994.

      "(2)  Revised reduction.-The  Administrator shall  increase the

   level  of  emissions  of  particulate  matter  allowed  under  the

   standard  referred  to  in  paragraph  (1)  if  the  Administrator

   determines that the 50 percent  reduction referred to in paragraph

   (1)  is  not  technologically  achievable,  taking  into   account

   durability, costs, lead time, safety, and  other relevant factors.

   The Administrator may  not increase such level  of emissions above

   70  percent of the  emissions of  particulate matter  (PM) allowed

   under the emission standard applicable under section  202(a) as of

   the  date of the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

   for particulate  matter  (PM)  in the  case  of heavy-duty  diesel

   vehicles and engines manufactured in the model year 1994.

      "(3)  Determination as part of  rule.-As part of the rulemaking

   under   subsection   (a),   the   Administrator   shall   make   a

   determination  as to whether the  50 percent reduction referred to

   in paragraph (1) is technologically achievable, taking into ac-

   count durability,  costs, lead  time, safety,  and other  relevant

   factors.

   "(c) Low-Polluting Fuel Requirement.-

      "(1) Annual testing.-Beginning with  model year 1994 buses, the

   Administrator shall  conduct  annual  tests  of  a  representative

   sample of operating urban buses subject to the particulate  matter

   (PM) standard applicable  pursuant to subsection (b)  to determine

   whether  such buses  comply with such  standard in  use over their

   full useful life.

      "(2)    Promulgation    of   additional    low-polluting   fuel

   requirement.-(A)  If  the Administrator  determines, based  on the

   testing under  paragraph (1),  that  urban  buses subject  to  the

   particulate  matter   (PM)   standard   applicable   pursuant   to

   subsection (b) do not comply  with such standard in use over their

   full useful  life,  he shall  revise the  standards applicable  to

   such  buses to  require  (in addition  to  compliance with  the PM

   standard  applicable pursuant  to  subsection  (b)) that  all  new

   urban  buses  purchased  or  placed  into  service  by  owners  or

   operators of urban buses in all metropolitan statistical  areas or

   consolidated   metropolitan   statistical  areas   with   a   1980

   population of 750,000 or more  shall be capable of  operating, and

   shall   be  exclusively  operated,  on  low-polluting  fuels.  The

   Administrator shall establish  the pass-fail rate for  purposes of

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