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   this section.

      "(2) Determining amount.-In determining the amount of any civil

   penalty  assessed under  this subsection,  the Administrator shall

   take  into  account  the gravity  of  the violation,  the economic

   benefit or  savings (if  any)  resulting from  the violation,  the

   size  of  the  violator's  business,  the  violator's  history  of

   compliance with this title, action taken to  remedy the violation,

   the effect  of the penalty on  the violator's  ability to continue

   in business, and such other matters as justice may require.

      "(3)  Effect  of  administrator's  action.-(A)  Action  by  the

   Administrator under this subsection shall  not affect or limit the

   Administrator's authority  to enforce any  provision of this  Act;

   except that any violation,

         "(i) with  respect to which  the Administrator has commenced

      and is diligently prosecuting  an action under this subsection,


         "(ii) for which  the Administrator has issued  a final order

      not subject  to further judicial  review and  the violator  has

      paid a penalty assessment under this subsection,

   shall not be  the subject of civil penalty action under subsection


      "(B) No action by the Administrator under this subsection shall

   affect any person's  obligation to comply with any section of this


      "(4) Finality  of order.-An order issued  under this subsection

   shall become  final 30 days after  its issuance  unless a petition

   for judicial review is filed under paragraph (5).

      "(5) Judicial  review.-Any person against whom  a civil penalty

   is assessed in  accordance with this subsection may seek review of

   the  assessment  in  the  United  States District  Court  for  the

   District of Columbia, or for  the district in which  the violation

   is alleged  to have  occurred, in  which such  person resides,  or

   where  such  person's  principal place  of  business  is  located,

   within  the 30-day  period beginning on  the date  a civil penalty

   order is issued. Such person  shall simultaneously send a  copy of

   the  filing  by  certified  mail  to  the  Administrator  and  the

   Attorney  General. The  Administrator shall  file in  the  court a

   certified copy, or certified index, as appropriate,  of the record

   on which the order was  issued within 30 days. The court shall not

   set aside  or  remand any  order  issued  in accordance  with  the

   requirements of  this subsection unless  there is not  substantial

   evidence in the record,  taken as a whole, to  support the finding

   of  a violation  or unless  the Administrator's assessment  of the

   penalty constitutes an  abuse of  discretion, and the  court shall

   not impose additional  civil penalties unless the  Administrator's

   assessment  of the penalty constitutes an  abuse of discretion. In

   any  proceedings, the  United  States may  seek to  recover  civil

   penalties assessed under this section.

      "(6)  Collection.-If any person fails to pay an assessment of a

   civilpenaltyimposedbythe Administratorasprovidedin thissubsection-

         "(A) after the order making the assessment has become final,


         "(B) after a court in an action brought under paragraph  (5)

      has entered a final judgment in favor of the Administrator,

   the Administrator  shall request the  Attorney General to bring  a

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