X hits on this document





281 / 316

      "(i) the defendant is responsible  only for actual awareness or

   actual belief possessed; and

      "(ii) knowledge possessed by a person other than the defendant,

   but not by  the defendant, may not be attributed to the defendant;

   except  that  in  proving  a  defendant's   possession  of  actual

   knowledge,  circumstantial   evidence  may   be  used,   including

   evidence  that the defendant took affirmative steps to be shielded

   from relevant information.

   "(C) It  is  an affirmative  defense  to  a prosecution  that  the

conduct charged was freely  consented to by the person  endangered and

that  the  danger  and  conduct charged  were  reasonably  foreseeable

hazards of-

      "(i) an occupation, a business, or a profession; or

      "(ii)    medical   treatment    or   medical    or   scientific

   experimentation conducted by professionally  approved methods  and

   such other person had been  made aware of the risks involved prior

   to giving consent.   The  defendant may  establish an  affirmative

   defense  under  this  subparagraph  by  a   preponderance  of  the


   "(D)  All general  defenses,  affirmative  defenses, and  bars  to

prosecution  that may  apply  with respect  to other  Federal criminal

offenses  may apply under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph and shall

be determined  by the  courts of  the United  States according  to the

principles of  common law as they  may be interpreted in  the light of

reason and experience. Concepts of justification and excuse applicable

under  this  section  may be  developed  in the  light  of  reason and


   "(E) The  term `organization' means a  legal entity,  other than a

government, established or  organized for any  purpose, and such  term

includes a corporation, company, association, firm, partnership, joint

stock company, foundation, institution,  trust, society, union, or any

other association of persons.

   "(F) The  term `serious bodily  injury' means bodily injury  which

involves  a  substantial  risk  of  death,  unconsciousness,   extreme

physical pain, protracted and obvious disfigurement or protracted loss

or impairment  of the function  of a bodily  member, organ,  or mental


   "(6)  For  the  purpose  of this  subsection,  the  term  `person'

includes, in addition to  the entities referred to in  section 302(e),

any responsible corporate officer.

   "(d)  Administrative  Assessment  of   Civil  Penalties.-(1)   The

Administrator  may issue  an administrative  order against  any person

assessing  a civil administrative penalty of up to $25,000, per day of

violation, whenever, on  the basis of  any available information,  the

Administrator finds that such person-

      "(A)  has   violated  or   is  violating  any   requirement  or

   prohibition  of  an applicable  implementation  plan  (such  order

   shall  be  issued  (i)  during  any  period of  federally  assumed

   enforcement, or (ii) more than  thirty days following the  date of

   the Administrator's notification under  subsection (a)(1) of  this

   section  of  a  finding  that  such  person  has  violated  or  is

   violating such requirement or prohibition); or

      "(B) has  violated  or is  violating any  other requirement  or

   prohibition  of title I,  III, IV,  V, or  VI, including,  but not

   limited  to, a  requirement  or prohibition  of any  rule,  order,

   waiver, permit,  or plan  promulgated, issued,  or approved  under

Document info
Document views285
Page views285
Page last viewedFri Oct 21 20:44:14 UTC 2016