damage from air pollutants on ecosystems. Such program shall
include the following elements:
"(1) Identification of regionally representative and
critical ecosystems for research.
"(2) Evaluation of risks to ecosystems exposed to air
pollutants, including characterization of the causes and
effects of chronic and episodic exposures to air pollutants and
determination of the reversibility of those effects.
"(3) Development of improved atmospheric dispersion models
and monitoring systems and networks for evaluating and
quantifying exposure to and effects of multiple environmental
stresses associated with air pollution.
"(4) Evaluation of the effects of air pollution on water
quality, including assessments of the short-term and long-term
ecological effects of acid deposition and other atmospherically
derived pollutants on surface water (including wetlands and
estuaries) and groundwater.
"(5) Evaluation of the effects of air pollution on forests,
materials, crops, biological diversity, soils, and other
terrestrial and aquatic systems exposed to air pollutants.
"(6) Estimation of the associated economic costs of
ecological damage which have occurred as a result of exposure
to air pollutants. Consistent with the purpose of this
program, the Administrator may use the estuarine research
reserves established pursuant to section 315 of the Coastal
Zone Management Act of 1972 (16 U.S.C. 1461) to carry out this
"(f) Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility.-(1) The
Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy and
the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and
Technology, shall oversee an experimental and analytical research
effort, with the experimental research to be carried out at the
Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility. In consultation with
the Secretary of Energy, the Administrator shall develop a list
of chemicals and a schedule for field testing at the Facility.
Analysis of a minimum of 10 chemicals per year shall be carried
out, with the selection of a minimum of 2 chemicals for field
testing each year. Highest priority shall be given to those
chemicals that would present the greatest potential risk to human
health as a result of an accidental release-
"(A) from a fixed site; or
"(B) related to the transport of such chemicals.
"(2) The purpose of such research shall be to-
"(A) develop improved predictive models for atmospheric
dispersion which at a minimum-
"(i) describe dense gas releases in complex terrain
including man-made structures or obstacles with variable
"(ii) improve understanding of the effects of turbulence
on dispersion patterns; and
"(iii) consider realistic behavior of aerosols by
including physicochemical reactions with water vapor, ground
deposition, and removal by water spray;
"(B) evaluate existing and future atmospheric dispersion
"(i) the development of a rigorous, standardized