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         section 207(b) unless  a warranty remedy has  been denied in

         writing, or for tampering-related repairs.

           "(iii) In view  of the air quality purpose of the program,

         if,   for   any   vehicle,   waivers   are   permitted   for

         emissions-related  repairs  not   covered  by  warranty,  an

         expenditure to qualify  for the waiver of an amount  of $450

         or more for such repairs (adjusted annually as determined by

         the Administrator on  the basis of the Consumer  Price Index

         in the same manner as provided in title V).

           "(iv) Enforcement through denial  of vehicle  registration

         (except for any program in operation before the date of  the

         enactment  of  the Clean  Air Act  Amendments of  1990 whose

         enforcement mechanism  is demonstrated to the  Administrator

         to   be   more  effective   than   the  applicable   vehicle

         registration program in assuring

         that  noncomplying  vehicles  are  not  operated  on  public

         roads).

           "(v) Annual  emission  testing and  necessary  adjustment,

         repair, and maintenance,  unless the  State demonstrates  to

         the  satisfaction  of  the  Administrator  that  a  biennial

         inspection,  in  combination  with  other  features  of  the

         program  which exceed  the  requirements of  this  Act, will

         result  in emission  reductions  which equal  or  exceed the

         reductions  which  can   be  obtained  through  such  annual

         inspections.

           "(vi) Operation  of the  program on  a centralized  basis,

         unless  the State  demonstrates to  the satisfaction  of the

         Administrator that a decentralized  program will be  equally

         effective.  An electronically  connected  testing  system, a

         licensing  system,  or other  measures  (or any  combination

         thereof)  may  be considered,  in  accordance  with criteria

         established by  the Administrator, as equally  effective for

         such purposes.

           "(vii) Inspection of emission  control diagnostic  systems

         and  the maintenance  or  repair of  malfunctions  or system

         deterioration  identified by  or affecting  such diagnostics

         systems.

      Each   State  shall   biennially  prepare   a  report   to  the

      Administrator  which assesses the  emission reductions achieved

      by the  program  required under  this paragraph  based on  data

      collected during inspection and repair of vehicles. The methods

      used  to   assess  the  emission  reductions   shall  be  those

      established by the Administrator.

      "(4) Clean-fuel vehicle programs.-(A) Except to the extent that

   substitute  provisions have  been  approved by  the  Administrator

   under   subparagraph  (B),   the  State   shall   submit  to   the

   Administrator, within  42 months of the  date of  the enactment of

   the  Clean  Air   Act  Amendments  of  1990,  a  revision  to  the

   applicable implementation plan for each area  described under part

   C of  title II  to include such  measures as  may be necessary  to

   ensure  the effectiveness  of  the  applicable provisions  of  the

   clean-fuel  vehicle program  prescribed under part  C of title II,

   including  all  measures  necessary  to  make  the  use  of  clean

   alternative fuels in  clean-fuel vehicles (as defined in part C of

   title II) economic from the  standpoint of vehicle owners.  Such a

   revision shall also be  submitted for each area that opts into the

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