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Chapter 4 – Globalization, Entrepreneurial Cities, and the Social Economyi - page 11 / 12





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above, there are major limits to such urban entrepreneurial strategies. This raises in turn the issue of alternatives to the never-ending search for sustainable advantages in an inter-urban competition that is becoming wider in scope and more hectic in its rhythms. One such alternative can be found in various projects to build greater self-sufficiency and sustainability through the development of the 'social economy'. It has only been possible to provide a brief sketch of some of the issues raised by such projects. Nonetheless, as the other chapters in this volume and several other studies have shown, any expansion of the social economy will depend on the development of stronger grass-roots social movements which will facilitate the reabsorption of the economy and state into an expanded civil society. Without such a basis and the institutional framework to sustain it, the current experiments with the social economy are threatened with marginalization and subordination to the logic (and illogic) of an increasingly global, but neither fully globalized nor fully globalizable, capitalism.


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