1996 Anne Marie Goetz and Rina Sen Gupta: Who Takes Credit?…World Development 24(1) 45-63
Lending processes often victimized women borrowers and contributed to their dis-empowerment
63 per cent of the women loans was controlled by male family members
Women bore the risks and burdens of institutional debts
2001 Lamia Karim’s 24 months doctoral work on
Grameen, BRAC, ASA and Proshika
The microlending practices and repayment pressures of these institutions cause intimidation towards borrowers and increase violence against women
Microcredit interventions in rural areas lead to the reproduction of usury.
2002 Ana Marr's doctoral research on the Communal Banks in Peru
Severe sanctions on borrowers in order to achieve high repayment rates.
Sanctions and repayment pressures damage the cohesiveness of the group, undermine the empowerment of borrowers, lead to household debt-building, and create more poverty