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25 For example, on sustainability issues related to financial markets and the paper cycle, WBCSD publications are already considered to be among the most authoritative documents to consult. See IIED (1996), Towards a Sustainable Paper Cycle (London: IIED & WBCSD); Jerald Blumberg, Georges Blum, and Åge Korsvold (1997), Environmental Performance and Shareholder Value (Geneva: WBCSD); Stephan Schmidheiny and Fedrico Zorraquin (1996), Financing Change: The Financial Community, Eco-effieciency and Sustainable Development (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). On other issues, see David Stone, Kristina Ringwood, and Frank Vorhies (1997), Business and Biodiversity: A Guide for the Private Sector (Geneva: IUCN and WBCSD); WBCSD (1996), Trade and Environment: A Business Perspective (Geneva: WBCSD); Albert Fry (1998), Industry, Fresh Water, and Sustainable Development (Geneva: UNEP and WBCSD). 26 Visit <http://www.wbcsd.ch/foundation> to access the Internet sustainability exam. 27 See Jan-Olaf Willums and WBCSD (1998), The Sustainable Development Challenge: A Briefing for Tomorrow’s Business Leaders (Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing); FBSD (1998), Foundation for Business and Sustainable Development: A Status Report (Oslo: FBSD); FBSD (1998), The WBCSD Virtual University: Factsheet October 98 (Oslo: FBSD). 28 All quotes from WBCSD (1996), Annual Review 1996, 13–14. 29 For the strategies and benefits of institutional networks, see Julie Fisher (1996), International Networking: The Role of Southern NGOs (New Haven, CT: Programme on Non-profit Organiza- tions, Yale University), PONPO Working Paper no. 228. For a good description of how expanding international membership, particularly in developing countries, can change the ethos of even long-standing organizations, see Leif E. Christoffersen (1997), ‘IUCN: A Bridge-Builder for Nature Conservation’, in Helge Ole Bergesen and Georg Parmann (eds.) (1997), Green Globe Yearbook of International Co-operation and Development 1997 (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 59–69. 30 Greenpeace (1997), Green or Greenwash? 31 See <http://www.igc.org/trac/greenwash>. 32 Corporate Watch (1997), ‘Greenwash Award for WBCSD’ (available at <http://www.igc.org/trac/greenwash/wbcsd.html>).


33 See Greenpeace (1997), ‘The Decline of Corporate Accountabil- ity’ (available at <http://www.greenpeace.org/~comms/97/ summit/account.html>). 34 Maria Elena Hurtado (1997), ‘Change of Course or Greenwash? Five Years After the Earth Summit, Big Industry Parades its Green Credentials’, World Consumer, no. 225, June. 35 Corporate Europe Observatory (1998), ‘MAIgalomania! Citizens and the Environment Sacrificed to Corporate Investment Agenda’, CEO Briefing Paper (available at <http://www.xs4all.nl/ ~ceo/mai>). 36 Kenny Bruno (1997), ‘The World of Greenwash’ (available at <http://www.igc.org/trac/greenwash/world.html>). 37 Karliner (1997), The Corporate Planet. 38 Greenpeace (1997), ‘The Decline of Corporate Accountability’. 39 Corporate Watch (1997), ‘Greenwash Award for WBCSD’. 40 See Financial Times (1997), ‘Dialogue Across the Divide’, Financial Times, 3 September, 24. 41 Ted Button (1997), ‘Sincerely Sustainable’, Financial Times, 5 November, 20. 42 The ‘Green or Mean?’ terminology is borrowed from Warnock (1997), ‘Green or Mean?’. 43 For a detailed analysis of NGOs as ‘policy entrepreneurs’ and the various roles (monitors, advocates, innovators, service providers) that such groups can play in the policy stream, see Adil Najam (1999), ‘Citizen Organizations as Policy Entrepreneurs’, in David Lewis (ed.), International Perspectives on Voluntary Action: Reshaping the Third Sector (London: Earthscan). For a nuanced view of how NGOs influence governments and policy, see Julie Fisher (1998), Nongovernments: NGOs and the Political Development of the Third World (West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press). 44 See Lehni (1998), Eco-Efficiency Reporting and Metrics; WBCSD (1998), The Application of Sustainable Development Concepts and Eco-Efficiency Metrics in Corporate Environmental Reporting (Geneva: WBCSD). 45 See Blumberg, Blum, and Korsvold (1997), Environmental Performance and Shareholder Value; Schmidheiny and Zorraquin with WBCSD (1996), Financing Change.


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