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  • Develop Next-Generation Feedstock. Improve management techniques and develop high-yield perennial crops suited for biofuel applications that require low inputs, are location-appropriate, and can improve soil and habitat quality while sequestering carbon.

  • Advance Alternatives to Chemical Inputs. Research the potential for integrated pest management and organic fertilizer development and use, including the use of mixed-crops, rotations, and other management techniques.

  • Assess the Risks of Genetic Modification. Potential risks and costs of developing and using GM crops must be fully assessed to determine if benefits outweigh costs. It is also important to research and develop appropriate safeguards for the use of genetically modified industrial organisms required biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol.

  • Supplement Environmental Life-Cycle Studies. Research is needed to fill in gaps in the existing body of analyses, with regard to global climate impacts and effects on local and regional air, soil, water quality, and habitat, including a better understanding of the impacts of land-use changes, and of the scale of N2O emissions from feedstock production, and their potential impact on the global climate.

  • Develop Methodology for Measuring Life-Cycle GHG Emissions. There is need for consistent, internationally used, methodology and assumptions for measuring GHG emissions associated with the production and use of biofuels from various feedstocks, associated land-use changes, management strategies, and processing practices.

      • 3.3.2

        Feedstock Collection and Handling

  • Improve Equipment and Harvesting Practices. Agricultural equipment and harvesting practices must be optimized for both crop and residue harvesting, to maximize economic benefits for farmers while minimizing soil compaction, and minimizing interruption of primary food crop harvests.

  • Ascertain Sustainable Residue Removal Rates. Conduct research to determine sustainable extraction levels of agriculture and forestry residues to maintain soil quality under varying conditions.

  • Improve Waste Handling Practices. Develop optimal means for safe handling and collection of various municipal waste resources (e.g. waste grease, cardboard).

  • Optimize Feedstock Storage and Transport Methods. For example, improved methods are needed to prepare feedstock for transport by reducing bulkiness and water content.

3.3.3 Processing

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