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  • Maximize Efficiency of Input Use. Technologies and practices should be optimized to make the most efficient use possible of water, energy, chemicals, and other inputs, and to minimize waste through recycling of wastewater, waste heat, etc.

  • Advance Biorefinery Concept. Continue support for the integration of a variety of related operations, including use of animal and crop residues as fuel feedstock and/or for process energy, and co-products (such as wet-distillers grain) as animal feed, bio-plastics, etc.

      • 3.3.4

        Fuel Distribution and End Use

        • Advance Fuel and Power Train Development. Combine research and design needs to optimize engine designs/performance to take full advantage of the unique properties of biofuels (e.g., higher oxygen content, higher octane, etc.), and evaluate fuel specification criteria to identify potential fuel changes that could improve engine performance.

  • Optimize Vehicles. This includes fine-tuning control systems and engine designs to run on varying blends for maximum fuel efficiency and minimum emissions across the full range of potential blend mixes.

  • Develop Materials. Research materials for higher-quality tubes, hoses, and other connectors to reduce evaporative emissions.

  • Develop Fuel Additives. Additives are needed to reduce emissions of NOx and

other harmful emissions from blends of fossil and biofuels.

3.3.5 Demonstration and Field Trials

In addition to resource assessments, policy analyses, and applied crop and processing research, it will be critical to advance experience on the ground, in varied settings. This will include field trials of new energy crops in different climate and soil conditions. Pilot conversion facilities, using cutting-edge technologies, should be funded and constructed in a wide range of settings in order to work out any related problems or challenges and to develop and make use of in situ ingenuity and local adaptation of technologies, crops and crop management, and handling systems. This should involve well-organized and well-monitored efforts in several countries (with varying climates, soil conditions, social structures, etc., including heavily degraded and desert lands), to build a body of practical experience over the next decade.

3.3.6 Outreach/Extension

On the national level, findings need to be disseminated to producers through demonstration projects, extension services (where they exist), and other farmer education mechanisms, including feedstock demonstration projects. In addition, farmers will need the appropriate know-how, capital, and incentives to risk planting new crops and to follow best practices; sustainable management and good crop choices should be tied to existing or newly created government incentives.

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