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and processing water could be adopted to encourage more-efficient use, and nutrient and water recycling should be encouraged.

  • Protect Virgin and Other High-Value Habitats. Governments must find ways to protect natural forests, wetlands, and other ecosystems that provide air and water purification, soil stabilization, climate regulation, and other vital services. Options include: enforcing bans on wild land conversion for biofuel feedstock production including strong penalties for noncompliance; using satellite and global imaging technology to track land use changes; tying tax incentives, carbon credits, qualification for government purchase, sustainable production certification, etc. to the maintenance of natural ecosystems; and requiring land preserves. Large- scale feedstock producers can be required to set aside a share of their land as natural reserve, as the Brazilian state of São Paulo has done.

  • Encourage Sustainable Crops and Management Practices. Extension services for farmers should provide them with the proper resources and incentives to select sustainable crops (particularly native species that reduce need for water, fertilizers, and pesticides), reduce the frequency of tilling and replanting, and provide habitat for wildlife. They should encourage sustainable management practices, including minimal use of inputs, buffer zones between waterways or wildlands and crops, intercropping, crop rotation, and adjusting harvest schedules to minimize conflicts with wildlife, etc. Subsidies can be linked to meeting specific criteria.

  • Improve Degraded Lands. Encourage the rehabilitation of degraded lands with monitored production of perennial feedstock.

  • Maximize GHG Benefits. Feedstock should be selected to maximize GHG reductions

      • 3.6.2

        Processing, Distribution, and End Use

        • Develop Licensing Procedures. Require that refineries meet strict environmental standards that include efficiency of water use and recycling, air and water pollution controls, etc.

  • Promote Use of Renewable Process Energy. Provide incentives to use biomass as process energy and guarantee fair access to the grid for sale of excess electricity.

  • Establish Emissions Standards for Biofuels. Just as regulations exist for conventional fuels, they are necessary for transport and combustion of biofuels, which can have different characteristics. Regulations are needed to minimize spills and hydrocarbon emissions during transport and fueling, and to minimize evaporative and combustion emissions from storage, handling, and combustion stages of the supply chain.

  • Encourage Rapid Transition to High-Blend Fuels. High blends with properly optimized vehicles can minimize a variety of harmful emissions. High biodiesel blends, particularly in urban areas of developing countries (where there may be

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