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Ethanol: Literature Review

1 2 3

What is Ethanol? ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1 What Ethanol is Made Of ............................................................................................................................................................ 2 What Ethanol is used for ............................................................................................................................................................. 2

4 5

3.1 3.2 3.3

Fuel Ethanol............................................................................................................................................................................. 3 Using Ethanol in Engines......................................................................................................................................................... 4 Ethanol as a Renewable Fuel Source for Fuel Cells ................................................................................................................ 4 Co-products................................................................................................................................................................................. 5 The Economics of Ethanol........................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 5.2

Economics in the United States ............................................................................................................................................... 6 Ethanol and the Canadian Economy........................................................................................................................................ 6

6

      • 5.2.1

        How will fuel ethanol impact Canadian agriculture?.......................................................................................................... 7

      • 5.2.2

        Fuel Ethanol: Is it Cost Effective?..................................................................................................................................... 7

    • 5.3

      The Economic Impact of the Demand for Ethanol ................................................................................................................... 7 Ethanol and the Environment....................................................................................................................................................... 7

    • 6.1

      Environmental Benefits of Fuel Ethanol ................................................................................................................................... 8

      • 6.1.1

        Carbon Dioxide................................................................................................................................................................. 8

      • 6.1.2

        Carbon Monoxide.............................................................................................................................................................. 9

      • 6.1.3

        Nitrous Oxide (N2O) ......................................................................................................................................................... 9

      • 6.1.4

        Other Octane Additives..................................................................................................................................................... 9

      • 6.1.5

        Ozone............................................................................................................................................................................. 10

7

6.2 6.3

8

7.1

8.1 8.2 8.3

Environmental behavior.......................................................................................................................................................... 10 Health Effects ........................................................................................................................................................................ 10 Energy Value ..............................................................................................................................................................................11 Energy Balance of Ethanol..................................................................................................................................................... 12 Ethanol Around the World.......................................................................................................................................................... 13 Brazil...................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 United States ......................................................................................................................................................................... 13 Canada .................................................................................................................................................................................. 14

      • 8.3.1

        Plant locations in Canada ............................................................................................................................................... 15

      • 8.3.2

        Mohawk Oil, Canada, Ltd., Minnedosa, Man. ................................................................................................................. 15

      • 8.3.3

        Pound Maker Agventures, Lanigan, Sask....................................................................................................................... 15

      • 8.3.4

        Commercial Alcohols, Inc., Tiverton, Ont........................................................................................................................ 15

      • 8.3.5

        Commercial Alcohols, Inc., Chatham, Ont...................................................................................................................... 16

      • 8.3.6

        Agri-Partners International, Red Deer, Alta..................................................................................................................... 17

      • 8.3.7

        Tembec, Temiscaming, Qué. .......................................................................................................................................... 17

      • 8.3.8

        Varennes, Quebec.......................................................................................................................................................... 17

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What is Ethanol?

The word alcohol derives from Arabic al-kuhul, which denotes a fine powder of antimony produced by distilling antimony and used as an eye makeup. Alcohol originally referred to any fine powder, but medieval alchemists later applied the term to the refined products of distillation, and this led to the current usage. (http://www.ethanol.org/)

Ethanol is a clear liquid alcohol that is made by the fermentation of different biological materials. This alcohol is known to have many uses, but one in particular is becoming more popular. Ethanol, the most widely used biofuel, is made in a process similar to brewing beer. The ethanol in the end is blended with gasoline to improve vehicle performance and reduce air pollution. (http://www.nrel.gov/lab/pao/biomass energy.html)

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