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Ethanol: Literature Review - page 14 / 17





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groundbreaking for a new ethanol production plant in Jennings, Louisiana which, when completed, will produce ethanol from rice hulls and bagasse. Three other plants are currently planned in California that will produce ethanol from rice straw. Already, ethanol is being produced from wood waste by Georgia Pacific in Washington State, and production from forest residue is not far behind. (http://www.ethanolrfa.org/fuelcells.htm)

8.3 Canada

In Canada, the ethanol industry is developing momentum, now that ethanol’s environmental, economic, energy, rural development, and renewable attributes are being more widely recognized. Although the industry is still in its infancy, with only a few small-scale plants producing ethanol, consumer demand has prompted several gasoline retailing chains to feature ethanol blends, with demand for ethanol exceeding our domestic production. Ethanol-blended gasoline is now available at over 700 gas bars across Canada from Quebec to the Pacific, including the Yukon Territory. In many regions, ethanol blends are available for bulk delivery for farm and fleet use. The federal government and several provinces offer tax incentives, based on environmental, economic development and/or energy diversity benefits, for the production and/or marketing of ethanol-blended gasoline to encourage development of an alternative fuel industry. Also, Environment Canada has designated ethanol- blended gasoline, which meets their specifications, as an Environmental Choice™ product on the basis of reduced toxic emissions, reduced use of non- renewable resources, and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. However, a firm and broad-based (i.e., multiple departments/ministries) commitment to procurement and incentives for ethanol in the near-term is essential to ensure the successful establishment of this fledgling renewable energy industry. (http://www.greenfuels.org/ethatech.html)

Canada typically produces fewer than 50 million tones of grain (wheat, barley, corn, oats, and rye) annually, and exports about half of this. If all Canadian gasoline consumption (presently about 33-35 billion litres annually) contained 10% ethanol, the maximum grain requirement would be 8-9 million tonnes. Canada would remain a major grain exporter. http://www.greenfuels.org/ethafood.html

Canada is a major importer of high-protein animal feed ingredients. The value of imports is typically about $200 million annually. The by-product resulting from ethanol production from Canadian grain would serve to reduce this importation. http://www.greenfuels.org/ethafood.html

How much fuel ethanol is being produced? Canada's current annual ethanol production, for all markets (1998) is approximately 234 million litres a year. With additional proposed development of ethanol production plants, Canadian potential production in the next few years is at 664 million litres per year.

How much fuel ethanol is being used? It is difficult to ascertain current levels of fuel ethanol use in Canada. In the U.S., it now represents about 9% of total gasoline sales, or the equivalent of the total Canadian gasoline consumption. Over two trillion kilometres have been traveled using fuel ethanol blends.

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