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Ethanol: Literature Review - page 8 / 17





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temperatures. 'Global Warming' is a term used to describe the increasing average global temperature.

The term 'Climate Change' refers to a wide range of changes in weather patterns that result from global warming. A substantial increase in the Earth's average temperature could result in a change in agricultural patterns and melting of polar ice caps, raising sea levels and causing flooding of low-lying coastal areas. The Earth's climate is already adjusting to past greenhouse gas emissions, and the average global temperature is expected to rise by 1°C to 3.5°C by the year 2100 (This increase in average temperature is larger than that which has been experienced over the last 10,000 years!). By 2100, the Earth's average sea level is predicted to rise by approximately 50 cm. These phenomena could have serious repercussions on the natural and physical environment, as well as on human health. http://www.greenfuels.org/globalwarm.html

With the threat of global warming & energy crises in today's environment the need for clean, "green" fuels is quickly becoming a necessity. (http://www.comalc.com/fuel ethanol.htm)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency considers ozone to be the most widespread air pollution problem. To combat this problem, ethanol is widely used in reformulated gasolines to help urban cities meet public health standards for ozone.

Because it's produced from renewable resources, ethanol is the only transportation fuel that reduces greenhouse gas emissions from cars. Fossil fuels release carbon trapped in the soil into the air, where it reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas that traps the earth's heat, contributing to global warming.

Ethanol is made from agricultural crops, which "breathe" carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. This maintains the balance of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Increased use of renewable fuels like ethanol, will help counter the pollution and global warming effects of burning gasoline. (http://www.sdcorn.org/ethenv.html)

Under current conditions, use of ethanol blended fuels as E85 can reduce the net emissions of greenhouse gases by as much as 30-36% and can further contribute by decreasing fossil energy use by 42-48%. Ethanol blended fuel as E10 reduces greenhouse gases by 2.4-2.9% and fossil energy use by 3.3-3.9%. The E10 blend reductions are lower because a smaller fraction of the blend is ethanol. With improved technologies and use of ethanol made from cellulose, these reductions in emissions will increase. http://www.greenfuels.org/globalwarm.html

    • 6.1

      Environmental Benefits of Fuel Ethanol

      • 6.1.1

        Carbon Dioxide

Carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels is the largest single source of greenhouse gases from human activities, representing about half of all greenhouse gas emissions. Use of 10% ethanol-blended fuels results in a 6-10% CO2 reduction and higher levels of ethanol can further reduce the net quantity of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. http://www.greenfuels.org/globalwarm.html More CO2 is absorbed by crop growth than is released by manufacturing and using ethanol. (http://www.greenfuels.org/ethaques.html)

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