CASAS ET AL.
TABLE 2. (Continued)
1 1 2
1 1* 2
L3h (223 256A) 179 223 243 256A 284 311 320 Total L3h L3e5 (041 223) þ2349 MboI 041 223 041 172 223 Total L3e5 L3x2 (15928) 169 193 195 223 243 261 Total L3x2 L1b (126 187 189 223 264 270 278 311) 7055AluI 126 187 189 223 264 278 311 126 175 187 189 223 264 270 278 311 Total L1b L1b1 (126 187 189 223 264 270 278 293 311) 126 175 187 189 223 264 270 278 293 126 162 187 189 223 264 270 278 293 311 362
Total L1b1 L2 (223 278 390) 223 278 311 355 368 390 Total L2 L2a1b3 (189 192 223 278 294 309 390) 189 192 223 278 294 309 390 Total L2a1b3
CRS indicates Cambridge reference sequence (Anderson et al., 1981); MP, medieval Priego de Cordoba; PP, Present population Priego de Cordoba; SIP, South Iberian Peninsula: South Portugal (Pereira et al., 2000; Gonza´lez, et al. 2003) þ Andalusia (Coˆrte- Real et al., 1996; Larruga et al., 2001; Plaza et al., 2003); NWA, Northwest Africa: Algeria (Coˆrte-Real et al., 1996; Plaza et al., 2003) þ Morocco (Plaza et al., 2003; Pinto et al., 1996; Rando et al., 1998; Brakez et al., 2001; Thomas et al., 2002) þ Tunisia (Fadh- laoui-Zid et al., 2004; Plaza et al., 2003) þ West Sahara (Plaza et al., 2003; Rando et al., 1998) þ Mauritania (Rando et al., 1998); IPI, Iberian Peninsula þ Madeira þ Azores þ Canary Islands; EU, Europe; NE, Near East; AFR, Africa, except Northwest. In brackets, positions that could be read in some of the ancient sequences. XMatches between the medieval and/or present population of Priego de Cordoba and current populations from other geographical regions.
a Haplotypes shared with South Iberian and/or Northwest African populations are also indicated. When no matches were found in t h e s e a r e a s , s h a r e d h a p l o t y p e s w i t h w i d e g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s a r e i n d i c a t e d . b c d * HVRI motif and RFLP status of each haplogroup. Mutations are indicated by the position according to Anderson et al. (1981) minus 16000. References are listed in Appendix. Exclusive haplotypes.
ces were washed with bleach before preparing each sam- ple, and all the instruments that came into direct con- tact with the osseous and dental tissues were systemati- cally washed with bleach before use. The samples were collected in sterile tubes to be sent to the laboratories.
The HVRI mtDNA of the operators working with the medieval samples (MJC in Oslo and RF in La Laguna) were sequenced in order to be compared with the ancient sequences obtained.
Extractions and PCR reactions were set in a physically separated area in specific laboratories only for ancient DNA work, using dedicated pipettes. Before work, all the surfaces were cleaned with bleach, and at La Laguna, the laboratory was also constantly UV irradiated. PCR reactions were set in a laminar flow cabinet previously irradiated with UV. Solutions were commercially acquired and tubes were purchased sterile and DNA-free (Oslo) and sterilized by autoclaving (La Laguna). Metallic and glass material were sterilized at 2008C in an oven for at least 2 h. At all times laboratory coats, face shields, hats, and sterile gloves were used.
To monitor contamination, one extraction negative con- trol and one (Oslo) or two (La Laguna) PCR negative con- trols were processed for each group of extractions and PCR reactions respectively. To test the authenticity of the sequences, duplicates of 10 individual samples processed in Oslo were extracted and amplified at the Genetics Department of La Laguna University. Also to test reprodu- cibility, bone samples of four individuals were double extracted, amplified, and sequenced in La Laguna.
Sequences were ascribed to haplogroups as described in the work of Richards et al. (2000), and their frequen- cies were calculated. To estimate the relationship between populations, the haplotype frequency-based line- arized FST (Slatkin, 1995) was calculated, with the Arle- quin 2000 program. All the estimates of distance were calculated taking into account the positions between 16069 and 16365. For the comparisons, published HVRI mtDNA data from present populations were pooled in two groups (Table 2), here referred as NW Africa, includ- ing data from Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Western Sa- hara, and Mauritania (Coˆrte-Real et al., 1996; Pinto et al., 1996; Rando et al., 1998; Brakez et al., 2001; Thomas et al., 2002; Plaza et al., 2003; Fadhlaoui-Zid et al., 2004), and Southern Iberia, including data from South Portugal and Andalusia, Spain (Coˆrte-Real et al., 1996; Pereira et al., 2000; Larruga et al., 2001; Gonza´lez et al., 2003; Plaza et al.; 2003).
American Journal of Physical Anthropology—DOI 10.1002/ajpa