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Marı´a Jose´ Casas,1* Erika Hagelberg,1 Rosa Fregel,2 Jose´ M. Larruga,2 and Ana ... - page 8 / 13

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CRS

19.7

19.4

19.0

13.4

W

2.8

1.6

0.1

H/HV*/U*/R* (except CRS)

27.9

32.4

25.5

17.5

X

0.9

3.2

1.5

pre-HV

0.9

0.6

1.0

M1

2.3

3.2

V

3.3

6.5

4.8

6.4

N*/M*/L3*/L3e5

4.9

1.9

1.0

3.1

U1a

0.3

0.5

L3b

0.3

1.4

U1b

0.1

L3b1

0.3

1.9

U2

2.8

1.0

0.1

L3d/d2

1.6

1.1

U3

1.0

2.4

L3d1

0.1

U4

3.7

1.6

0.8

L3e1

0.3

U5*

3.3

2.8

0.6

0.9

L3e1a

0.1

U5a

1.3

0.1

L3e2

0.3

U5a1

1.6

1.6

0.4

L3e2b

1.3

0.4

U5a1a

0.9

0.6

0.3

L3f

0.9

0.4

U5b

1.6

0.9

1.6

1.7

L3f1

0.3

0.4

U6a

0.3

3.1

L3h

0.9

0.1

U6a1

5.1

L3x2

3.7

U6b

0.3

0.1

L0a1a

0.3

U6c

0.4

L0a1

0.1

U6c1

0.9

0.1

L1b

3.3

0.3

0.5

U7

0.3

0.3

L1b1

1.6

0.9

1.0

2.4

K

1.6

7.4

6.8

6.5

L1c3

0.3

T*

8.2

1.9

0.6

0.8

L1c2

0.3

T1

3.3

2.8

2.3

3.8

L1c3b1

0.4

T2

0.9

2.6

0.6

L2

1.6

0.9

T3

1.3

1.1

L2a

1.0

0.4

T4

0.3

L2a1

1.3

2.3

T5

0.3

0.1

L2a1a

0.5

J*

11.5

0.9

4.5

3.1

L2a1b

0.1

J1

0.6

L2a1beta3

1.6

1.0

J1a

1.6

0.9

0.6

0.3

L2a1d

0.1

J1b

1.6

0.1

L2b

0.3

J1b1

0.3

0.1

L2b1

0.1

J2

1.9

1.9

0.9

L2c1

0.1

N1a

0.3

0.1

L2d1

0.3

0.5

N1b

1.6

1.0

L2d2

0.3

I

1.3

1.1

Sample size

61

108

310

784

American Journal of Physical Anthropology—DOI 10.1002/ajpa

Haplogroup

MP

PP

SIP

NWA

Haplogroup

MP

PP

SIP

NWA

DISCUSSION

Although among present European populations Iberia is genetically the closest to North Africa and genetic flow has been detected between them, they show a clear genetic differentiation when analyzing different DNA markers (Flores et al., 2000; Bosch et al., 2001). We have also detected this genetic differentiation, as shown by FST data. However, the medieval Priego differentiation from NW Africa is lower than that of the present day population. Assuming that NW Africa has not suffered important demographic changes since the 12th–13th cen- turies, this difference could be explained by the migra- tory movements from NW Africa during the Muslim occupation of the Iberian Peninsula, and the posterior movements toward Africa. In fact, it is well known from the historical records (Carmona, 1997) that important population movements from and toward Priego de Cor- doba took place between 13th and 17th centuries due to political causes: the revolt of the Islamic population (mude´jares) and their movement to the South while Cas- tilians were encouraged to repopulate the area (13th century), the definite Christian conquest (14th century), the instability of the borders with the remaining Moslem territories (14th–15th centuries), the forced conversion or expulsion of the mude´jares in 1502, and the definitive expulsion of around 3,000 Christianized Moors (mor-

546

CASAS ET AL.

TABLE 4. Haplogroup frequencies of medieval (MP) and present population (PP) of Priego de Cordoba, compared with those of present populations of South Iberian Peninsula (SIP) and Northwest Africa (NWA)

iscos) in 1611. As a result, the current population is more divergent from NW Africa than in medieval times.

Considering haplotypes and their frequencies, MP is the most divergent Iberian sample. Medieval North Afri- can immigrants in Priego should not have been numer- ous, and therefore their haplotype frequencies would not have been representative of the original population. They were probably integrated into quite an isolated local population, whose haplotype frequencies could also be divergent when compared with global Andalusia. So, this differentiation of MP seems to be the result of sev- eral genetic drift effects.

For the above reasons, genetic drift could also explain the absence of U6 haplogroup in the medieval sample of Priego, as the frequency of this haplogroup in all NW Africa is also low. On the other hand, the only U6 sequence of current Priego has been found in three Can- arian individuals (Rando et al., 1999; Maca-Meyer et al., 2003) and only one in all continental NW Africa, which seems to indicate its Canarian origin and that it most probably arrived in the Iberian Peninsula because of the aborigine slave trade of Canary natives after the con- quest of the Canary Islands in the 15th century.

The significant higher number of sub-Saharan African lineages (L1 and L2, Table 2) in MP, two of which are also found in NW Africa, points to the important role of Moslem migrations in the present gene distribution in

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