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Electrical wiring in the 800-square-foot house is antiquated. Cabinets are coming off the walls, and the garage burned down a few years ago.13

“They come to school with very poor shoes – hand-me-downs that are a size too small or two sizes too big,” (Principal) Dittman said of the 500 students in his school. “Whatever is handy.14

a. Economic Status Poverty in the San Joaquin Valley can be so extreme that it is often compared to that in the Appalachian region.15 Although the media coverage/research of conditions in the San Joaquin Valley is far less extensive than that in Appalachia, the poverty is greater; a Congressional Research Service Report in 2005 found that per capita income in San Joaquin Valley was lower than in the 68-county Central Appalachia region.16 The root of this kind of poverty in the Valley is said to be “high unemployment, low wages and an undereducated work force.”17 Statistics on unemployment in parts of the Valley are staggering; the juxtaposition of incorporated to unincorporated communities shows an unmistakable disparity to which only numbers do justice. While the unemployment rates for Tulare County’s three largest cities in June 2007 remained between 5.2 percent and 7.8 percent, in remote or unincorporated parts of the county, in Alpaugh, Cutler, Earlimart and Strathmore, unemployment averaged between 22 to 25 percent.18

Youth in the San Joaquin Valley fair no better, as the Valley sends “far more of their juvenile delinquents per capita to the California Youth Authority than other California counties,” due to counties’ lack of financial ability and capacity to create effective juvenile justice systems.19 Twelve percent of youth age 16-19 the San Joaquin Valley are unemployed and not in school, compared to 10% statewide.20 Children in the San Joaquin Valley are least likely in the Central Valley to attend preschool

and have the largest average class sizes.21 needs:

According to a 1999 Fresno County study on child-care

“The unincorporated community of Biola looks like a model for much of rural Fresno County when it comes to child care: The demand is high. The supply is limited. “We have so many parents that work in the fields, so many that need day care.” The problem is pervasive, according to a 1999 Fresno County study on child-care needs: “Lack of facilities and providers as well as lack of transportation contribute to the limited accessibility to child care in rural and unincorporated areas.” 22

  • b.

    Infrastructure Deficits and Service Disparities

    • 1.

      Gutters, Drainage, Sidewalks, Curbs

In 2005, the Fresno Bee documented that certain streets in Calwa (fringe), in Fresno County flooded 6-8 inches when it rained, due to lack of sidewalks, curbs and gutters. Although residents were able to fundraise and receive grants for some sidewalks, they are anomalies in this unincorporated area. “Vanessa Cortez, 11, said she is excited that Kaviland Street is finally going to have sidewalks and


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