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1 Mukhija, V., Monkkonen, P., What’s in a Name? A Critique of “Colonias” in the United States, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, June, 2007.

2 State of California, Department of Finance, E-1 Population Estimates for Cities, Counties and the State with Annual Percent Change — January 1, 2006 and 2007, Sacramento, California, May 2007.

3 The only method for identifying islands within our 8 San Joaquin Valley counties is through reviewing public documents and publicly available GIS maps including: Local Area Formation Commission (LAFCO) maps of current city boundaries; maps available from city and county planning or public works departments; city and county web-based GIS systems; and the U.S. Census Bureaus website, www.factfinder.census.gov. All islands identified to be located within a county are included as potential Communities of Interest in this analysis. Because islands are often very small and only partially overlapped by Census Block Groups, it is not possible to summarize in any systematic way their demographic and housing characteristics using data from the 2000 Census. Therefore any ensuing reference to demographic or housing characteristics of unincorporated communities in this report excludes all county islands.

4 Spheres of influence are created by county Local Agency Formation Commissions (LAFCO’s) typically based upon a petition by a local government agency, including special districts. As described in the California Government Code Section 56076, a sphere is a “plan for the probable physical boundaries and service area of a local government agency.” Once approved by a LAFCO, and depending on local rules and practice, a city may exercise influence over how development occurs in areas located within its sphere. This may entail reviewing building permits issued by the county for areas within the sphere, coordinating land use planning and collaborating on the creation of regulatory standards.

5 The exact population of each island has not yet been calculated, but it is clear that they are, on average, smaller than the CDPs.

6 Public Documents: Documents available from County LAFCOs as well as city and county planning departments were used to identify additional unincorporated communities missed in the 2000 Census. These additional unincorporated communities were only identified for Fresno, Tulare and Stanislaus counties. The primary communities identified through this method are those served by County Service Areas or Community Service Districts in Fresno and Tulare counties. Advisory Committee Informants: Advisory committee members who have helped guide and support this project identified local unincorporated communities that have recently emerged or have been missed in both Census data as well as local government documents. A total of 7 of these communities, all located in Tulare County, were identified through interviews with key informants.

7 8 The New York Times, March 7, 2007, A Piece of History Lands in a Contemporary Fight, Patricia Leigh Brown. A. Gonzalez, M. Bengiamin, J., Home Garden Community Assessment, Central Valley Health Policy Institute, May, 2007.

9 Mukhija, V., Monkkonen, P., Federal Colonias Policy in California: Too Broad and Too Narrow, Housing Policy Debate Volume 17 Issue 4, 2006, Fannie Mae Foundation, p769.

10 Porterville Redevelopment Agency, www.calredevelop.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Home&CONTENTID=3706&TEMPLATE=/CM/ContentDisp lay.cfm *Although Porterville was annexed recently and making improvements through the redevelopment agency since 2004, these extreme conditions still exist there and in other Communities of Interest.

11 Los Angeles Times, August 25, 2002, The Black Okies; A Lost Tribe's Journey to a Land of Broken Promises; 'Going to California' was the rally cry of black sharecroppers who traded one hardscrabble life for another in the San Joaquin Valley, Mark Arax.

12 Modesto Bee, January 22, 2006, A Watchful Eye Focuses on Riverdale; Martinez and Company Reversed Neighborhood’s Slide into Crime, Inga Miller.

13 Modesto Bee, February 24, 2006, Tapping Financial Resources; Funds Help Low-Income Families Build New Homes or Repair Old Ones, J.N. Sbranti.

14 ***Quoted from Principal Bob Dittman of Empire Elementary, “a school where 85 percent of the students come from families living below the poverty level.”


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