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prevented a number of interesting contributions from being included. We were particularly sorry that, for reasons of health, Dr. Albert Duchênes of Belgium, honorary secretary of the international commission, was unable to offer the pa- per he had planned, entitled 'Le rôle des militaires dans le développement et la fixation des frontières du centre de l'Afrique entre 1876 et 1914'. Other papers from Spain, South Korea, Turkey, Israel, Tunisia anal Kenya could not be in- cluded in the programme because delegates from their national commissions were not able to get to Ottawa. We were somewhat disappointed not to receive proposals for papers from a number of national commissions, and not to have succeeded in interesting historians from South America, India, some countries in the Middle East and Australasia. The high cost of travel is evidently a major problem.

If these disappointments are counted as penalties, the rewards were ample compensation. The conference as a whole demonstrated the signal advantage to be derived from exploiting the speed and convenience of modern travel, expen- sive as it is, to bring together a remarkably wide cross-section of historians for several days. Over 200 delegates were present from 23 countries; of these, 28 historians from fourteen countries presented papers. The balance was reasonably healthy, eight being from North America, fifteen from Europe and the USSR, three from Japan, one from Israel and one from Cameroon. We were especially pleased to welcome historians from Japan; and Dr. Thierno Mouctar Bah from Cameroon, representing the Association of African Historians, added a distin- guished and useful dimension to our deliberations. The nature of the theme would have made further contributions from Africa and South East Asia equally welcome. It is to be hoped that copies of these proceedings may in fact spark some response from such parts of the world.

The personal contact that occurred between historians was of inestimable value. Academically speaking, we were able to "make our patterns ... build our models ... liberate ideas or ... demolish generalisations." The process will con- tinue, one hopes, as the proceedings are being read and digested. If we have also brought together new friends and useful ideas, we shall be well satisfied with the results of the colloquy; and the happiest man among us will be the Secretary of the Canadian National Commission, Jean Pariseau. In 1975, after the Chief of the Defence Staff, General Jacques Dextraze, had agreed to sponsor the confer- ence, I asked Jean Pariseau to take on the overall co-ordination as his first and most important responsibility. Not only did he assume the task enthusiastically, he showed unusual initiative and imagination in collating all suggestions and introducing many new ideas of his own. The result of this combined effort was that in addition to an academic program and tours of the city of Ottawa, the con- ference included an ambitious combination of tours and social occasions that took advantage of virtually every facility to be found within a practicable dis- tance of Ottawa in the time available. Visits to historic sites in Ontario and Que- bec afforded a useful insight into Canada's military and colonial past. The hospi-

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