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serve on international observation missions. Our armed forces have gone on op- erations of this kind all over the world since the Second World War, including for example Korea, Egypt, Cyprus, the Congo, Pakistan, India, Nigeria and Vietnam. We now have a battalion of infantry in Cyprus and a contingent about 1,200 strong of logistics and communications personnel in Egypt, Lebanon and on the Golan Heights, and we still have observers in India and Pakistan, as well as with the United Nations Truce Supervisory Organization in the Middle East. It is no greater a contribution than that of several other countries, but it is one that keeps us very much alive to the peculiar needs of international peace- keeping. I do not presume to suggest where the roots of instability lie in the troubled places to which our armed forces have been sent, but it is impossible to escape the fact that the transition from colonial status to independence is in the recent past of many of the territories involved. I shall therefore be interested to learn the results of your deliberations on this question of armed forces and colo- nies. I see that you have even examined one example nearly 2,000 years old in a part of the world that still affords us all great concern. Few lingering problems from the past can be distinguished by such a measure of antiquity.

I hope you will enjoy exploring Canada's colonial and military history in your visits, the one some of you have already made to Quebec, your trip to Kingston on Saturday and that to Louisbourg after your academic sessions are over. May lasting friendships be forged, and may a basis for solving some of our problems be established. On that note, ladies and gentlemen, I declare this con- ference in session.

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