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refusal of the militia of the French villages to take up arms against the Indians. Yet nowhere is there a hint of the use of the "language of bayonets" to be frond.

The natural tendancy of the British commandants was to use their own countrymen to obtain supplies, and consequently, to favor British traders over French merchants. If it revealed itself to be the wrong policy in an area where English commerce was treading hostile grounds, it was the application of what had been formulated in London by the Secretaries of State and the Lords of Trade.

In conclusion, it would have been to the advantage of the inhabitants of the five French villages to cast their lot squarely with Britain, or to make the move across the Mississippi. Britain's own interests were to protect Illinois from Brit- ish settlers and from the territorial ambitions of her turbulent colonies. Leader- ship in the French villages, however, was nonexistent under British rule. It too had crossed the river.

Uniformity of attitude among armies of occupation is no more to be ex- pected than uniformity of attitude among armies in campaign. On the other hand, armies from all countries - organized armies, that is to say - have common traits because of the rigorous nature of the business of war, and carry over centuries identical attitudes brought upon them by identical situations. While other profes- sions change with the modification of the tools of their trades, the ultimate mis- sion of the soldier has cast him in an inalterable routine. Then, in a sense, the impact of the British troops on this small society was immense, not because of the brutality of an occupation but because of its mere presence.


  • 1.

    Natalia Maree Belting, Kaskaskia Under the French Regime (University of Illinois Press: Urbana, 1948), p. 39.

  • 2.

    Clarence Edwin Carter, Great Britain and the Illinois Country, 1763-1774 (The American Historical Association: Washington, 1910), p. 17.

  • 3.

    New York, December 30 1764, American State Papers, II, 209, and in John B. Dillon, History of Indiana (Bingham and Doughty: Indianapolis,

    • 1859)

      , pp. 80-81.

  • 4.

    Stirling to Gage, December 15 1765, Public Records Office, Colonial Of- fice, 5-84, folio 223.


Stirling to Gage, December 16 1765; also in Carter, Great Britain and the Illinois Country, p. 49.

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