searchers have arrived at the conclusion that since the Allies temporarily lost many of the raw material sources in the Far East and in South-East Asia, India, Africa and the Middle East became the main suppliers of these materials during the war. Sharp expansion of industrial and agricultural production in these re- gions required additional labour effort and sometimes material sacrifice on the part of the peoples of the colonies. It was this that determined their contribution to the struggle against fascism.
Another form in which the peoples of the colonies and semi-colonies con- tributed to the armed struggle against fascism was their participation in the op- erations of the Allied armies as servicemen. These problems are examined in all the volumes of the "History of the Second World War, 1939-1945", the collec- tive work "The Armed Struggle of the African Peoples for Freedom and Inde- pendence" and in a number of theses. Soviet researchers point out that: 1) this was a tangible contribution, because several million inhabitants of the colonies fought in the ranks of the armies of countries belonging to the Anti-Hitler Coali- tion and in their auxiliary units; 2) in most cases the colonial troops fought in difficult geographical and climatic conditions, namely in North Africa, Malaya, Burma, Madagascar, in the mountains, the jungle and the desert; 3) the men from the colonies displayed excellent aptitude in mastering modern military equip- ment and weapons, and also courage and military skill. This was true, despite the discrimination against them and unequal relations which, as a rule, dominated in the colonial troops.
The peoples of a number of colonies and semi-colonies in Africa and South-East Asia made a big contribution to the armed struggle against fascism and Japanese militarism in the racks of the guerrilla fighters and the insurrection- ists who staged armed uprisings against the invaders. Soviet military historians have examined this problem in close connection with the history of the national- liberation movement. In their works V.F. Vassilyev, A.A. Guber, A.M. Dubin- ski, A.S. Kaufman and G.I. Levinson have named a few features which charac- terise this struggle, namely: a) the fusion of the anti-fascist Resistance movement with the national-liberation struggle of the peoples in the colonies; b) the use chiefly of armed forms of struggle; c) the acquisition of a mass character by the guerrilla movement and armed anti-fascist uprisings; and d) the resorting of guerrilla formations -- from separate detachments to big guerrilla units -- to widely varying forms of struggle. Soviet military historiography points out that these revolutionary armed forces were, as a rule, distinguished for their ad- vanced organisational structure which combined semi-regular formations with guerrilla forces and people's militia. They were characterised by a high standard of discipline, fighting efficiency aid morale. They conducted highly effective military operations inflicting serious losses on the invaders and thereby contrib- uting to the success of the forces of the Anti-Hitler Coalition. In some cases they managed to liberate whole regions and even countries by independent action, even before the arrival of Allied forces. Soviet historiography points out that, in