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THE DIRECT CAUSES OF THE PACIFIC WAR, PARTICULARLY CENTERING ON STUDIES OF UNITED STATES - SOVIET RAPPROCHEMENT AFTER THE OUTBREAK OF THE GERMAN-SOVIET WAR AND JAPAN'S SOUTHWARD ADVANCE

[Professor Hiroshi Yoshii, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan)]

Introduction

The interpretation of the Pacific War in Japan after 1945 is basically in line with the decisions of the Tokyo Trial. Many critics and historians have writ- ten a history of the Pacific War from this viewpoint. Indeed, the Japanese were ignorant of many data until the Tokyo Trial of 1946-48; we must also bear in mind, however, the minority dissent of the Indian Judge Pal at the Tokyo Trial.

The debate between the majority and the minority in the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack of 1945-46 is very well known.

Because of the United States' involvement in Vietnam in the 1960's, a new viewpoint of the historian has been born anxious to explore the roots of the United States' foreign policy in East Asia.

Nowadays we should examine the history of the Pacific War not from a national interest but from a world-wide perspective.

We must examine the following three points as the direct causes of the Japanese-American war.

  • 1.

    The China Problem

  • 2.

    Japan's Advance Southward

  • 3.

    The Axis Alliance

Which was the most decisive of these three problems? I should like to express my conception of the pre-Pacific War age as follows.

THE FAR EASTERN QUESTION The China Problem

It is clear that the Twenty-one Demands to China in 1915, the Manchurian Affairs in 1931, the Sino-Japanese War from 1937 onwards were Japan's actions against the open door policy of the United States. A decisive factor of Japanese- American antagonism was Japan's unwillingness to withdraw her troops from China. In the final phase of the negotiations with the United States, Japan con-

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