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fective at all, was only so at a very short range. The Jewish settlers rightly re- fused to be regarded as "white natives", who were not entitled to bear appropri- ate arms for their self-defence.

When in April 1936 the Mandatory authorities were again caught by sur- prise at the outbreak of what was later on called by the British the "Arab Re- volt", they had to resort to the enlisting of Jewish special constables, however, now armed with army rifles. In June 1936 there were already 1300 such special constables and this force increased in number until the end of the riots in 1939. Needless to say, the special police served as a certain legalization for the illegal underground forces of the Jewish community in the country, known as Hagana At the beginning these special constables were given the Turkish-Arab name "Ghaffirs", denoting in the old Ottoman Empire a certain type of privately paid local security guards (in fact, until the very end of the Auxiliary Police Forces their coat-of-arms bore a "G"). These special constables had at first no uniforms, but only wore special armlets. Later on, shabby, shapeless yellow uniforms were issued. As headgear, Bedouin "Kaffiyas" were distributed at first, then the au- thorities tried to introduce the Turkish 'Fez" [or "Tarbooshs"] and finally settled for the Circassian "Kolpaks". The official explanation given was that, for rea- sons of equal rights, Muslims would also be invited to join the Auxiliary Police Force, and they would object, for religious reasons, to any cap with a peak. Only at the beginning of 1939 the Jewish Settlement Police received a reasonable army-type uniform and an Australian hat was issued. Tidy uniforms were in fact a tremendous boost to the morale of the forces. 3

When in October 1936 the "Arab General Strike" came to an end, there was a lull in the violence, which the Mandatory Government used as an excuse to reconsider the existing arrangements. It was clear that the only reliable ele- ment loyal to the British authorities in the country was the Jewish community. Therefore, the British were eager to employ large Jewish forces, instead of trans- ferring additional British army units to the Middle East. However, the British authorities tried to exploit the situation and attempted to tie an agreement for the increase of legal Jewish forces with the disbanding of the illegal "Hagana". The Jews, of course, would not agree to this, having learned their lessons the hard way in 1921, 1929 and in April 1936. The British officials finally gave in and in 1937 four categories of the Auxiliary Police Force were established:

Category "A" : 740 fully mobilized auxiliary policemen, 4 paid by the Government;

Category 'B" : 740 Special Constables, liable to be called up at two hours' notice and paid when on active duty;

Category "C" : 1480 "second reserve" to be ready after 24 hours and paid when on active duty;

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