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der Fence, aimed against infiltrations of armed gangs from outside Palestine, a special Jewish auxiliary police force of 300 constables was created, organised into three companies, each under the command of a Jewish sergeant-major, 4 platoons in each company and 3 sections in the platoon. This force, manned by the cream of Hagana, performed outstanding combat activities against grave odds.

When at the peak of the renewed riots the Hagana formed the so-called "Fosh-companies"5 for offensive actions, the Mobile Guards of the Jewish Set- tlement Police were incorporated into these Fosh units, providing them with convenient legal cover.

One special feature of the auxiliary constabulary were the Special Night Squads (SNS), established by Captain Orde Charles Wingate6 initially for the protection of the oil pipe line from Iraq to the Haifa refineries. This unit was a mixture of British regulars and Jewish settlers and became famous for its out- standing battle performance. Wingate worked hand in hand with the Hagana General Staff and commanded in person an NCO's course for the so-called "Jew- ish Attached Police" (attached to military units). He planned also an officers' course of this kind but was prevented from going ahead with it by the mandatory officials, who opposed the whole scheme. In this connection, it should be men- tioned that a course for JSP company - and group-sergeants, intended to be pro- moted inspector's rank, was also scrapped. The Jews participating in the SNS wore British army uniforms and were issued army equipment. Little wonder, that most of the successful field commanders of the Israeli War of Independence had seen service with Wingate.

When at the outbreak of World War II the Arab Revolt succumbed, British Mandatory authorities thought at first to disband the Jewish auxiliary police forces. However, after Italy had joined in the war, they had second thoughts and not only maintained them at the previous level, but also increased their strength considerably, thus freeing British units for other tasks. In 1942 JSP numbered 2650 paid constables and 15000 special constables. The armoury of JSP was now enriched by 2000 Canadian rifles with bayonets and also 100 Bren guns, 12 2" mortars (one for each company) and additional rifle-grenade-launchers.

In the summer of 1942 exercise manoeuvres against "enemy paratroopers" were conducted, in which JSP constables and Mobile Guards and also "A" Com- pany of the Palmach7 participated. The manoeuvres were watched by highrank- ing British army officers, who were very much impressed by the professional performance of all the units involved.

In view of the long coastline of Palestine, a Coast Guard auxiliary police unit was formed in 1942. However, this unit was very much neglected by its British superiors. At the beginning there was only one old, and sometimes even

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