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defective, Italian rifle for every two guardsmen. Accommodations and equip- ment were entirely insufficient. In 1944, the Hagana High Command decided, therefore, to incorporate the Coast Guard clandestinely into the Palmach, whereby at least the battle-worthiness of the unit was improved, as it was cared for -by the Palmach command.

In 1945 the JSP Training Depot was inaugurated, commanded by a British inspector. Officially the training program included only basic rifle instructions and armed drill. However, since the second-in-command was a Jewish company- sergeant, appointed by Hagana and a graduate of the Hagana's officers' course, fieldcraft and other subjects were also taught.

After World War II the Jewish community and the Zionist Movement found themselves at loggerheads with the British Government over immigration policy in particular, and over the future of the Jewish National Home in Palestine as provided for in the mandate of the League of Nations, in general. However, the Jewish Agency and Hagana were very eager to keep the Jewish Settlement Police aloof from the overt conflict, in order not to forfeit the many advantages rendered by its very existence. In fact, the JSP existed until the very end of the British Mandate in Palestine and then simply merged into the Israel Defence Forces (IDF).

To this brief and general survey a number of more specific observations should be added:

We have already dwelt upon the problem of double loyalty. Since there were two hierarchies of command, the official British one and the parallel clan- destine one of the Hagana, the primacy of the unofficial hierarchy was never doubted by the members of the force. It seems that the British themselves were well aware that in fact the so-called Jewish Agency liaison-officers kept a watch- ful eye on the Auxiliary Police Forces and prevented the infiltration of unwanted elements into the force.

The very existence of thousands of supernumary constables, entitled to be officially trained in the use of weapons and to carry weapons, provided an excel- lent cover for the widespread activities of the underground army.

As early as 1937 training manuals were published in Hebrew for the bene- fit of the Jewish constables. A special publication house was established and in the framework of these officially authorized publications, Hagana could distrib- ute training pamphlets and manuals of its own and serving its own purposes.

The very existence of the Mobile Guards provided the opportunity to transfer illegal weapons in their vehicles without being afraid of police road- checks and searches. It was common practice to invite the British inspector for

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