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use of such forms of action that were specific to the people's war, calling up the entire population capable to bear arms were for many centuries a common prac- tice in the Romanian way of waging defensive wars. In addition to the regular troops, some various irregular armed units or people's units equally took part in the actions carried on against the invaders: the outlaws during the Middle Age, the militias and national guards in the modern epoch, and patriotic fighting for- mations, the detachments of partisans, during the two world wars which have so dramatically marked this century.

A fourth factor is to be found in the balanced foreign policy almost unin- terruptedly promoted by the Romanian state leadership, a policy which together with the military effort contributed to the safeguarding of the country. Actually after they had won victories over the invading armies of some neighbouring states, many Romanian princes in the Middle Ages concluded equitable peace treaties with their defeated, without any annexations or humiliating stipulations which would have subsequently engendered hatred and revisionist tendencies. Such was the case of the Romanian voivode Bessarab I, after he had defeated the Hungarian army led by King Carol Robert in 1330, or of voivode Stephen the Great, after he had inflicted great losses upon the Polish army led by King Loan Albert. Owing to this policy, former enemies could be won over as friends and allies against some other invaders, or at least determined to refrain from hostile acts when the Romanians were militarily engaged on other frontiers. Likewise through political-diplomatic means various Romanian voivodes succeeded in avoiding devastating wars on their own territory and in securing a respite for economic, cultural or home administrative strengthening.

Of course, relations with the great empires were far more complex. More often than not peace had, as a matter of fact, to be bought from them at the price of some painful sacrifices in the economic field and even of certain restrictions on Romanian foreign policy. In this respect, I would like to remember that in return for a tribute (which with the time had become extremely unbearable) and a suzerainty in the spirit of the time, the ottoman Porte took the pledge not to attack Romanian territory, to observe the internal autonomy of the Romanian countries, not to force the Mohammedan religion upon Romania and to contrib- ute to their defence against some other enemies. The main result of this ar- rangement was, undoubtedly, the preservation by the Romanian countries of their autonomy, for they were never turned into pashaliks, as it had happened with other surrounding peoples, whose states ceased to exist - at times for long periods of time.

Worth being added to the aforementioned factors is also the close - some- times direct - collaboration between the Romanian people and other peoples likewise engaged in the movement for national social emancipation. For in- stance, remarkable pages were written clown in the 14th-19th centuries in the book of the by now traditional cooperation of the Romanians with the Serbian,

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