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removed the possibility of an expensive ship-building race on the Lakes, but had not prevented fortifications on land. So Britain built and manned fortifications at Halifax, Quebec City, Kingston, and elsewhere. Royal Engineers also cut the Rideau military Waterway. Until 1870 the British garrisoned the interior of the country with a force usually large enough to match the American regular army.30 The cost of the Canadian garrison in Canada for the British taxpayer was a big factor in the concession of responsible government in 1849. 31

Fear that the Civil War might bring an invasion caused Britain to send re- inforcements in huge numbers; but the province's failure to pass a Militia Bill in 1862 suggested that Canada would not assume its fair share of responsibility for its own defence. Confederation in 1867, and the withdrawal of the garrison in 1870, were steps designed to reduce the British commitment and so to decrease Canada's military dependence.32 But Canadian governments continued to balk at paying for a regular force.33 As border and other issues with the United States were settled from time to time by diplomacy, Canadians were able to argue that if war came it would be result of British imperial interests elsewhere. They held that Britain therefore owed them protection and they suspected that military preparations in peace time might drag them into Imperial wars overseas. Yet in any serious emergency they would have need of British aid.34 Canada was still militarily dependent. At the end of the century Captain William Wood, later to become well known as a military historian, wrote in The British Command of the Sea and What It Means to Canada that no part of Greater Britain could "think of standing alone." 35

The balance sheet of the consequences of Canada's military dependence is complex. The advantages of the British connection included easier access to investment capital and, even after the British adopted Free Trade, easier access to British markets and to the products of British industries. After responsible government Canada was able to shape its own economic policy more according to its own view of its own interests, for instance by Galt's tariff and by Mac- donald's National Policy.36 But many Canadians believed that British conces- sions to the United States were made at Canadian expense, for instance in the location of borders, rights in the fisheries, and the settlement of claims for Fenian raid damages.37 Nevertheless, it was not until after the 1904 Anglo- American rapproachment, in which Britain was believed to have made the worst sell-out yet of Canadian interests, that Canada did much to assume the costs of Militia expansion and of a regular force to reduce dependence on Britain. The dominion still remained a military dependent of Britain.

One of the costs of colonial, military dependence was that colonies were expected to help in the defence of the Empire. But responsible government gave them a greater say in this commitment. Unlike Australia and New Zealand, Can- ada consistently refused to make the contributions to the Royal Navy. But Brit- ish soldiers wanted colonial manpower to offset the large conscript armies of the

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