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to be dependent.52 They may even, like Somalia and Ethiopia, switch their de- pendence from one great power to a rival in a diplomatic revolution.

But what is important is that in a world that is becoming more interde- pendent and when national independence is out of line with technical progress, there is a resurgence of national independence; but in new states, this is para- doxically marked by continuing dependence rather than by constructive interde- pendence.

Thus, though colonialism is well-nigh extinct, military dependence re- mains. As Colin Gray has said, "a great measure of dependence is a fact of life."53 Furthermore, unless they haw a monopoly or near monopoly of resources that the industrialized states need, the economic and social development of new states depends entirely on capital inflow and technical know-how from outside. International aid, which has taken the place of investment programs under colo- nialism, threatens to make many emergent states permanent debtors. Political independence often came so quickly that it has often been hard to assimilate. Military dictatorships are frequent and not always helpful for economic and so- cial development, even less for political development. Finally, although fear of nuclear war has thus far checked great-power conflict, there is greater instability in a world of small powers. Small wars are more frequent.

Canada had had time to adjust to the assumption of control of its own af- fairs. As it had sufficient resources, it could develop significantly. Yet its mili- tary dependence was not completely thrown off and military and economic de- pendence is a problem. Continued military dependence seems to be a fate that new states will find it even harder to escape. New nations enjoy their present political independence, not because of their own strength, but because world opinion has come to reject colonialism, because in theory the two super powers which now dominate the world scene profess anti-colonialism. Cold War rivalry has, however, encouraged small wars and more military dependence. The people of new states are therefore often less secure than when they were colonial de- pendents. Comparison of the experience of Canada and of other new nations thus serves to remind that colonial military dependence in colonial times provided stability and order, and so permitted development, on a scale and to a degree that many new states may come to look back to with nostalgia.

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