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gaged in protecting imperial sea lanes, but also in exploration, stimulation of commerce, and communications. Both land and sea institutions fed veterans into an early American melting pot alongside the civilian apprentices, bondmen, in- dentured servant, etc. - all seeking adventure, fortune, and a stake in the future. We are familiar with this contribution of the U.S. Army and the New Immigra- tion of the late nineteenth century. We may have overlooked this same concept in an earlier era.

Limitations of any essay permit only brief mention of various approaches inherent to any new synthesis. We must surely rethink the traditional emphasis upon; 1) wars and colonial military institutions. We should also reexamine rami- fications of 2) "the man on horseback" concept, 3) non-combat contributions and societal implications, as well as 4) the impact of martial matters upon econom- ics, localities, and ideologies. American historians admittedly know more about Anglo-American colonies than those of Spain and France. Yet, the phenomena of military contributions to colonial societies pervades all these cultures to a large degree. It is important to synthesize the results of purely national research in this regard.

Colonial Wars and Military Institutions

There are undoubtedly scholars working in these areas who have vibrant new approaches to problems. Yet, most of us will surely ask, "what else is there to say about colonial military operations in America?" We know that war played a key role in the "disimperialism" of each imperial player of the period. 3 We know a great deal about various campaigns and battles, and the principal charac- ters strutting about the stage from Lord Amherst to Chief Pontiac. We have probed the evolving animosities between colonial and metropole to the point that little new can be said in that vein, perhaps. Yet, we certainly need better com- parative analysis of the first and second periods of overseas European expansion (i.e., seventeenth and eighteenth versus nineteenth century systems), in terms of the functional reality of military affairs in the life of the system. Here would be something of true value for "applied" history devotees on military as well as academic staffs today.

Then too, have we really plumbed the depths of colonial campaigns and battles for 'Mr. Average Man?" Popular history needs this ingredient so that the bourgeoisie of any era can relate to their earlier counterparts. Mankind seem- ingly aspires to the pinnacle of some class ladder, but, here in America, at least, our contemporary fascination with "citizen history" tends to produce more ex- citement about leather jerkin and calico than taffeta gowns and silver buckles. This has great moment for military history. 4

Escalate this fact, for example, to the lofty realm of the contrast between fluid frontier colonial warfare, and chess table-like continental manoeuvre trans-

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