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military professional at the center of politics and government (and all too atten- dant corruption) may have made the transition to the post-imperial republics in Hispanic America. Parochial as we North Americans are basically, we probably have overlooked for too long such conceptual roots of our neighbors. Indeed, our statesmen and citizens both might be less prone to inveigh against military au- thoritarianism in Latin and South America today if they had a better appreciation of the Hispanic antecedents in this regard.

Americans basically fail to recognize the role of the man on horseback even in colonial Anglo-America. The story cannot help but begin with James- town in Virginia. Entrepreneurs in England early on discovered that militariza- tion of their experiment was necessary to protect their economic investment. Soldier governance of soldier-settlers by Sir Thomas Dale and Sir Thomas Gates, both veterans of English involvement in continental wars, meant that le- gal differentiation of civil and military acts was purely academic in hour of sur- vival. The whole fabric of the settlement - religious, civil, defensive, and eco- nomic became organized on a semi-military basis. Such a reaction to crisis and possible extinction served as a para military model even for Massachusetts Bay in 1628-1629, and colonization theories of English worthies like Sir Francis Ba- con - despite the fact that colonial capitalists in Virginia had rapidly turned away from military rule by 1616-1619. Thus, in the very first English New World ex- periment, we find twin threads which remain with American culture even today. The populace was quite ready to embrace military affairs as necessary for sur- vival, but they were generally averse to lingering vestiges of such control once the perceptible threat had passed. 7

Much of the Anglo-American military contributions to colonial societies derived from individuals rather than large bodies of uniformed soldiery. England alone of the imperial powers of the age relied on tiny land forces. Yet she pos- sessed veteran soldiers from Sir Ferdinando Gorges to Marlborough's lieutenants who had roles to play in the New World. Gorges stood behind plans to found a feudal royalist barony in New England. John Churchill's battlefield protégés found lucrative employment after Blenheim as royal administrators for Virginia - Colonels Daniel Parke, Robert Hunter, Alexander Spotswood, and the Earl of Orkney among them. Similar patterns attended the other twenty-one loyal colo- nies from Antigua to St. Lucia in the period. Now, truly fascinating questions arise over their application of military administrative tools of vigor, leadership, organization, personality, etc. - professional traits in a pre-professional age - upon the civilian societies they governed. Were they part of the milieu which shaped American aversion to standing military forces, "rule by colonels", estab- lishmentism - the whole crux of pre-Revolution issues and answers? We know that these military colonial governors secured dependency of the Anglo- American colonies to the British head of state - but perhaps they also spawned righteous indignation, opposition, and thus, contributed ultimately to the events of 1776. 8

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