A STUDY OF THE CREATION, DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CHINESE RED ARMY - AN EXAMPLE OF A LIBERATION ARMY CREATED IN A SEMI- COLONY
[Shu Kohno, Department of Defense Science, The National Defence Academy, Kanagowa-ken (Japan)]
The Chinese People's Republic has proclaimed its intention to accomplish modernization of agriculture, industry, defense, science and technology in this century. In view of the provision of Article 19 of her new Constitution that "the State shall endeavor to carry out revolution, modernization and strengthen the construction of the Chinese People's Liberation Army", it is clear that the main aim of modernization of defense is modernization of the army.
Modernization of the army has been stressed on several occasions since the establishment of the Chinese People's Republic. It was first promoted by Pen Te-huai after the Korean War. But this was checked when Pen engaged in a dis- pute with Mao Tse-tung over this policy and fell into disfavor. Next, it was ad- vocated by Chou En-lai in the mid-1970's. But in those days, the "gang of four" was at the peak of its power, and modernization of the army was hindered. Mao died in September 1976, and the "gang of four" was ostracized the following month. A thesis demanding modernization of the army was published in the People's Daily dated December 4, the same year. Hua Kuo-feng advocated ac- celeration of modernization of the army in the People's Daily of April 30, 1977. This aim is specified in the new Constitution announced on March 7, 1978.
It appears that demand for modernization of the army has been made every time strict adherence of the principles of Mao Tse-tung has been de-emphasized. That modernization of the army is demanded indicates that there is dissatisfac- tion with the present situation of the People's Liberation Army among Chinese leaders. That these demands are voiced every time Maoist principles are de- emphasized suggests that there is contradiction between modernization of the army and Maoism. In order for China to promote modernization of the army without causing great confusion in the future, she will have to solve this contra- diction.
This treatise is intended to analyze the process of the establishment of the Red Army, predecessor of the People's Liberation Army and its characteristics and make clear the difference between it and modern armies. Mao Tse-tung de- fined China in the days of the establishment of the Red Army as a semi-colonial and semi-feudalistic State, and charged the Red Army with the duty of liberating