the people from their plight. Thus this treatise also serves the purpose of making clear the process of the establishment of liberation armies in semi-colonies.
The General Situation before the Establishment of the Red Army
The long history of China is colored by invasion by northern foreign races, resistance against them, farmers' rebellions, and struggles for power utilizing them. After 1840, incursions by the Imperialistic Powers, resistance against them and many rebellions and riots including the Taiping rebellion took place one after another Mao Tse-tung stated that "In China, liberation movements over the past 100 years have matured the Chinese people are trained and ready". 1 But this training was not carried out in just 100 years, but over several thousand years. A fundamental reason why the Red Army was able to appear and grow in such an extremely bad environment and at last succeeded in carrying out a new democratic revolution was the Chinese people's resistance against such wars and their strong will to pursue a certain goal.
Dynasties that established stable political power in China generally lasted about 200 years. The year 1840 when the Opium War broke out was the 225th year of the founding of the Ching Dynasty. At that time, the dynasty was already declining. That is, after 1840, China entered upon an age of violent changes caused by internal conditions of the Ching Dynasty's decline and external condi- tions of invasion by Imperialistic Powers. A movement to tide over the situation was a constitutional movement aimed at strengthening the constitution of the Ching Dynasty. On the other hand, several revolutionary movements continued after the Taiping Rebellion. In 1905, the "China Alliance Society" was formed and a revolutionary movement to overthrow the Ching Dynasty made rapid pro- gress. In October 1911, the Chinese Revolution broke out and in February 1912, the Ching Dynasty fell and the Chinese People's Republic was established. But the foundation of this revolution based on a compromise settlement between Sun Wen and Yuan Shih-kai proved unstable, and moreover, the previous external conditions had changed little. The revolution had only just begun, and many problems had to be settled before the new system was stabilized.
Li Ta-chien began to translate treatises on Marxism from about the spring of 1912. From those days, small movements advocating a Communist revolution joined the large Chinese revolutionary movement. The Russian Revolution in 1917, the establishment of the Comintern in 1919 and the outbreak of the 5.4 movement in China in the same year stimulated the formation of the Chinese Communist Party. In July 1921, 13 representatives 2 met in Shanghai and formed the Communist Party. The formation of the party was led by the Comintern. It is said two of its representatives 3 took part in it. The 13 representatives included some persons who later seceded from it and those who were said to be rightists and extreme leftists. The party could not have been formed but for the strong