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guidance or mediation by someone. The view that this person was from the Comintern is reasonable. But the subjectivity of Chinese Marxists cannot be ignored in view of the historical background of those days and the Chinese peo- ple's proud character.

When the communist party was formed, members numbered only 57 per- sons, 4 and of course, the party did not have its own army. And at the time of the third national convention in June 1923, too, members totaled only 342,5 with Chen Tu-hsiu, an advocate of bloodless revolution, holding the leadership. Therefore, the party had neither intention nor ability to have an army. At this convention, the party decided to collaborate with the Kuomintang. The Kuomin- tang for its part agreed to this. At the first Kuomintang convention in January 1924, communist party members' participation in the Kuomintang was decided, and several members of the communist party were appointed to important posts in the Kuomintang Government. The period between this time and July 1927 represented the first period- of collaboration between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party.

The Kuomintang developed rapidly and in July 1926, it started out to con- quer the north. In a short space of time, the southern part of China came under its control. It cannot be said that communist party members made no contribution to the development of the Kuomintang. But the collaboration between the two par- ties brought a great benefit to the communist party, too. This is proved by the following figures:

The number of communist party members increased rapidly to 995 in January 1925,6 to about 10,000 in November 1925,7 and to 57,967 in April 1927.8 And members of the Chinese National Labor Union under the leadership of the Communist Party reached 2,800,000 9 and organized farmers 10 million. This is probably due to the fact that the Communist Party was able to conduct overt and covert activities under the aegis of the Kuomintang army and the re- vulsion of the people against the intensified incursions of the Imperialist Powers, which had been suspended during World War I, which in turn, led to the culmi- nation of the revolution besides the devoted efforts of its able leaders. 10

Among the Kuomintang leaders, military leader Chiang Kai-shek, felt the development of the Communist Party represented a future, latent threat. He be- gan to curb the Communist Party's influence in Shanghai in April 1927 during the northern war of conquest. This at once spread to various regions of the coun- try. Friend and foe alike took concerted actions to expel the Communists.

Some workers and farmers attempted armed resistance, but Chen Tu-hsiu's guidance division checked these attempts and they were disarmed. The influence of the Communist Party, which had no power to resist, rapidly weakened during May and June of the same year.

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