On July 13, Chu Chiu-pai sponsored a conference at Kiu-kiang and organ- ized an anti-enemy committee with Chou En-lai as secretary. Anti-Chen Tu-hsiu elements thus decided to adopt a Bolshevik revolutionary policy. On July 15, the Wuhan Government of the Kuomintang's leftist party, decided to outlaw the Communist Party. Thus the Kuomintang-Communist Party collaboration was formally cancelled. On July 18, the committee held a conference in Hankow and decided on an armed uprising.
This plan was aimed at capturing large cities and included mutiny of the army at Nanchang and farmers' uprisings in Hupei, Hunan and Kwangtung prov- inces. On August 1, the Nanchang riot broke out. Then on August 7, the central committee's emergency conference was held in Hankow, and Chen Tu-hsiu was stripped of the post of secretary general and Chu Chiu-pai was appointed in his place. The Communist Party formally decided to form its own army and follow the Bolshevik revolutionary policy.
In the middle of July, the Comintern gave the Chinese Communist Party guidance for carrying out an uprising. However, this guidance represented merely principles which were open to various interpretations. Chen Tu-hsiu used these guiding principles to advocate maintenance of a united front with the Kuomintang. That is, the subjectivity of Chinese Marxists must be recognized in the choice of the party's armament and the Bolshevik revolutionary policy at that time.
The Birth of the Red Army
Li Yu stated that "Mao Tse-tung himself established the people's army 50 years ago" in a thesis published in the People's Daily dated August 6, 1977. Lo Ying-huan pointed out that "the reorganization at Sanwan was practically the birth of our army".11 It is said that the Red Army was established by Mao Tse- tung near Sanwan at the end of September 1927.
In the armed uprising in 1927, Mao took charge of guidance of the farm- ers' riot in Hunan Province. Mao commanded about 8,000 persons including guard regiments of the former People's Revolutionary Army and rising farmers at various places. On September 8 they marched on Changsha. But the band was soon destroyed through internal dissension and an enemy ambush. Mao retreated to the south, leading about 1,000 defeated troops.
His decision to retreat was the best choice and one of great significance for China, the Communist Party and Mao himself. For, this retreat opened the way for Mao to become the supreme leader of the Chinese Communist Party through the construction of the Chingkangshan base, expansion to the Kiangsi Soviet Area and the long march.