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collaboration, and the enemy comprised military cliques supporting feudalistic influences backed by imperialist forces. According to Mao's interpretation, the oppression of the Communist Party by the Kuomintang after April 1927 meant that the latter went over to the side of the feudalistic and imperialistic forces. Therefore, probably, he had decided to engage in "a violent revolution" in his resistance against the Kuomintang after the Kuomintang-Communist Party dis- union.

Mao was a soldier of the revolutionary army for about six months immedi- ately after the Chinese revolution. During his school days at a normal school, he served as a battalion commander of the school's self-defense corps. He liked reading books from his boyhood and probably read military literature, too, but he received no other education and had no experience as a soldier except the above.

And there is no indication that he received guidance or assistance from military experts, nor was he in a position to receive guidance from the Comintern or the party's headquarters in the period from the uprising in Septem- ber 1927 to the union with Chu Te at the end of April 1928. The establishment of the Red Army by the "Sanwan reorganization" was carried out almost com- pletely by Mao Tse-tung, a military layman. Agnes Smedley gives intuitive abil- ity, self-confidence and resolution as Mao's characteristics. Probably these were used to the maximum at that time.

It seems the fact that he was a military layman and that he received no as- sistance from military experts proved advantageous in organizing a new army which departed from conventional military theory.

Main factors that led to the establishment of the Red Army as a liberation army are: First, China's historical background of many dynasty-changing revolu- tions and liberation from rule by foreign powers. Second, the existence of an unstable situation where new and small undertakings could develop coupled with a semi-colonial and semi-feudalistic state brought about by the continuation of a revolutionary state for about 100 years. Third, the establishment of a good model of Soviet Russia and the existence of the Communist Party with an excellent organizing ability. Fourth, the fact that farmers accounted for 80 percent of the huge population, and that the greater part of them were poor farmers struggling to live. Fifth, the fact the Kuomintang-Communist Party collaboration gave the Communist Party, that was still weak, time to build a firm foundation.16 And, sixth, the fact that Mao, who was a military layman, organized it by his free con- ception without being swayed by conventional theory.

Characteristics of the Red Army

Characteristics of the Red Army were created by the various conditions mentioned above. And under these conditions, the weak rebel army was formed

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